The W.E.B. DuBois was a 24th century starship registered for Federation travel, presumably named for the person of the same name.
Under the command of Captain N. Land, this vessel visited Starbase 172 in 2370. From there, it was due to arrive at Deep Space 9 on stardate 47561.4. (DS9: "Whispers")
W.E.B. DuBois was never mentioned or shown, but simply listed in an okudagram graphic of an arrival roster on a viewscreen. The graphic was also populated by some other in-jokes.