The political ideology of Communism has been a very accurate portrayal and closest reference point used to observe the government known as the The Federation as Communism creates the most similar political system to the United Federation of Planets.
The Communism ManifestoEdit
The Communism Manifesto is the easiest used direct comparison between the two established governments as the both use similar ideas.
Abolition of property rightsEdit
There is little to no use of money in the economics of the Federation. The main currency used is Latinum which unlike capitalistic forms of currency that can be easily electrically transfered; Latinum is a solid metal and is not easily distributed which is similar to the currency of communism. It is shown in the TNG episode "The Neutral Zone" that the concept of a banking portfolio doesn't exist when Ralph Offenhouse asks to check his portfolio only to have everyone baffled by the concept one.
State seizure of transportationEdit
All transportation is controlled by the Federation as there were no visible cases of a non-federation ships legally used within the federation.
State seizure of communicationsEdit
All communications are done by using the subspace relay system is owned and monitored by the Federation. The only known users of this system that are able to use privet communications are starfleet offials, which can be decrypted within a matter of minutes. There are no cases of Federation news media or journalism of any kind meaning people would not be very informed of the workings of the government.
Elimination of religion and traditional familiesEdit
Although most (if not all) religious practices are tolerated there are slight anomalies with main Earth religions including Christianity. In the TOS episode "Balance of Terror" a traditional christian wedding takes place however there is no reference to "God" or "Jesus" which suggests the censorship or elimination of the fundamentals of religion in the Federation.
State seizure of industryEdit
In the federation there have not been any identifiably legal corporations. This is suggesting that corporations are either highly monitored or are banned by the Federation. There is also no system of pattens or recognition of ideas or inventions besides that of historical records.
Citizens are forced to workEdit
Citizens particularly starfleet personnel are always seen working even though there is no benefit of payment. Although it doesn't show that working is mandatory or forced it begs the question of how this work in actually patrolled or monitored as it the only benefit is that to society.
Although the Federation seems to represent communism it is said that in the 22 to 24 century humanity is shown as having a much higher sense of morale which helps to support the undefined political system of the Federation.