|Output:||Adjustable width beam / bolt (alternate reality)|
|Era:||23rd century to 29th century|
A descendant of the EM weapons and phase pistols of the 22nd century, the type 2 phaser was introduced before the mid-23rd century and was standard issue aboard Starfleet vessels by the 2260s. In the nearly two hundred years since their introduction to Starfleet personnel, several models and makes have been observed.
Utilized primarily in defensive situations, the phaser type-2 had several applications, from use as a weapon to use as a cutting tool, explosive device, or energy source. Storing considerable energy, most phasers were distinguished by a roughly pistol or gun-type configuration, firing a focused energy discharge in the form of a beam or steady stream. (TOS: "The Naked Time", "The Conscience of the King", "The Galileo Seven")
Models and variations
As early as the 2260s, Federation type 2 phasers were characterized by an unmistakably gun-like appearance. Varying in color from black and white, gray and black, and gray and copper combination, the 2260s model featured identifiable barrel and trigger structures, with an elongated handle/power pack capable of being quickly swapped out and "reloaded".
Unlike the majority of its progeny, the type 2 phaser of the 2260s – and later the 2280s – featured an integrated companion, top-mounted type-1 hand phaser. (TOS: "The Devil in the Dark", "The Omega Glory")
Type 2 phasers of this period were, like later models, capable of power adjustment. Beam intensity and even speed and motion could be altered depending on the intended function. They could be utilized to produce a cutting beam, capable of slicing through a bulkhead, or to generate a phaser "spread". The energy from a 2260s model could also be drained (a process which took several hours) and used as a power source. The energy from six phasers was capable of launching a small vessel or shuttlecraft into an unsustainable orbit around a planet for several hours. Adjustments could be made by a small knob at the rear of the device, and one on the front of the left side. (TOS: "The Naked Time", "Wink of an Eye", "The Galileo Seven"; ENT: "In a Mirror, Darkly, Part II"). When overloaded, a 2260s type 2 phaser had the capacity to destroy a significant portion of a starship. (TOS: "The Conscience of the King")
The destructive power of the phaser type-2 of this era has been measured in thousands of lives, when large numbers of Yangs were killed on the planet Omega IV in 2268. Proconsul Claudius Marcus, of planet 892-IV's equivalent of the Roman Empire, noted that 100 men armed with hand phasers could "defeat the combined armies of Rome". At its maximum setting, it could disintegrate an object up to the size of an average humanoid. (TOS: "The Omega Glory", "Bread and Circuses")
Consisting of single-piece and phaser type-1 and type-2 combination units, most phasers of this time were characterized by a dark-gray coloration, some with a number of control buttons allowing adjustments to be made for the desired affect.
Functioning similarly to the 2260s-style type 2 phaser, the phaser-2 models of this period were powerful enough to vaporize targets up to the size of an average humanoid and could throw a stunned individual several feet in certain circumstances. (Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan; Star Trek III: The Search for Spock)
By 2287, type 2 phasers had become sleek, black models with removable clips at the handle. They were stowed in equipment lockers aboard Federation starships and shuttlecraft, though they would trigger an alarm if fired at certain settings. A phaser of this design fired on stun at close range was lethal. (Star Trek V: The Final Frontier; Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country)
In the alternate reality created in 2233 by Nero, the alternate 2250s version of the type 2 phaser became silver, albeit with a body reminiscent of the original design, with a rotating barrel for switching between stun and kill settings. They were only seen to fire bolts rather than continuous beams. (Star Trek)
24th century and beyond
By the 2360s, the type 2 phaser had evolved past the pistol-like configuration, becoming a sleek, silver-colored device with a handle flowing into the form of a muzzle cowling and emitter.
With two small buttons for beam width and intensity control and a large one to fire the device, the phaser type-2 of this period featured a large, illuminated power level readout. The phaser of this time retained the functionality of the previous designs, but increased the power and versatility. Like their predecessors, these units could be adjusted for use as cutting tools or power sources. They could also be set to overload, becoming a powerful explosive device. (TNG: "Encounter at Farpoint", "The Hunted", "Silicon Avatar")
The type 2 phasers of the 24th century were capable of achieving sixteen settings, ranging from mild stun to disintegration. They were as follows:
- Level one: lowest setting, Light Stun, capable of stunning most base humanoids for approximately five minutes. According to Starfleet regulations all phasers must be stored at this setting. Possesses enough force to break large urns. (Star Trek: The Next Generation Technical Manual; TNG: "Aquiel"; TAS: "The Lorelei Signal")
- Level sixteen: Capable of vaporizing rock to widen an opening in a lava tube partially blocked by rubble, or blowing large holes in walls. (TNG: "Chain of Command, Part I", "Frame of Mind")
In addition to variable power settings, type-2s can be set for a narrow (affecting a single target) or "wide" beam (affecting two or more targets over a certain area). The frequency of the beam may also be adjusted to make it more effective against certain types of shields and/or force fields. (TNG: "The Arsenal of Freedom", "The Best of Both Worlds", "Power Play"; VOY: "Initiations") Type 2 phasers could also cause severe to deadly phaser burns. (TNG: "Night Terrors")
Lieutenant Malcolm Reed in "Broken Bow" explicitly stated that phase pistols had only two settings, while several TNG-era episodes have established phasers as having up to sixteen. Aside from this, no data or even lip service has been given as to just what differentiates a phase pistol from a phaser - it is quite possible that little or no differences exist beyond settings. The first TOS pilot, "The Cage" established the use of lasers before phasers, but is often regarded as an anachronism. The Star Trek: The Next Generation Technical Manual describes phasers operating on a "modified version of the rapid nadion effect" which "produce a pulsed protonic charge".
Although never shown on screen, production illustrations suggest that the type 2 phaser used in Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan had removable type-1 components like the model used in Star Trek: The Original Series and the model used in Star Trek III: The Search for Spock. The design of the "assault phaser" from Star Trek V: The Final Frontier and Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country also included a removable type-1 located beneath the cowling.
For TNG, the type 2 phaser was intentionally differentiated from the style used in TOS. In a 1987 interview, Rick Sternbach explained, "We've gotten away from the pistol look of the handheld phasers. We have based the new design on the fact that there are many ways for the human hand to grip one." (Starlog issue #125, p. 48)
Ed Miarecki has noted that the TNG type 2 from season 1 was nicknamed the "dustbuster". The term "type 2 phaser" was not officially associated with this weapon until the VOY Season 3 episode "Fair Trade".
A sleeker version of the type 2 phaser debuted in VOY: "Initiations" and was used both in Star Trek: Voyager and Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, although there was never any canon explanation of how Voyager, cut off from the Federation, was able to procure the new design.
As shown in the It's A Wrap! sale and auction, a number of type 2 phasers created were intended for background purposes only, and thus were made out of foam and molded directly into their holsters. One was sold in week 5 of the auction for US$425.00.  A phaser holster for this type was also sold off. 
Type 2 phasers from TNG Season 3 were also seen in the Warner Brothers movie Stay Tuned. The assault phasers from Star Trek V: The Final Frontier and Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country is seen in the MadTV skit The Captain Kirk Show.
The Ninth UK Story Arc suggests that the version of this phaser in use in the 2260s did not function when submerged in liquid.
In the novel Vendetta it is stated that a type 2 phaser has enough power for ten shots at setting level sixteen. Also, every time the phaser is fired at level sixteen, there is an automatic six-second cool-down period, otherwise the phaser will overheat and possibly explode.