The crime of theft was the taking of another individual's property without permission. This was different than robbery in that no force was used against the owners of the property. An individual who engages in this activity is known as a thief.
Captain James Kirk and his crew were charged with theft after commandeering the USS Enterprise in order to retrieve Captain Spock from the Genesis Planet in 2286. The charge was eventually dismissed by the President of the Federation. (Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home)
Berlinghoff Rasmussen committed numerous thefts of small objects on the USS Enterprise-D in 2368. The stolen objects included a tricorder and a phaser. His intention was to return to 22nd century New Jersey in his stolen time travel pod and claim to have invented them in order to make a profit. His plans were thwarted by the Enterprise crew. Odo would later recount these events to Worf as an example of a security breach under his tenure as security chief. (TNG: "A Matter of Time"; DS9: "Bar Association")
Odo often suspected Quark of acts of theft on Deep Space 9. He once told Quark that he would miss his "aggravation, the petty theft, the bad manners" while Deep Space 9 was being evacuated in 2370. (DS9: "The Siege")