Physiology and culture
According to Federation astral anthropology research, these "huge, furry creatures" were similar, but much larger than the anthropoids discovered on Hansen's Planet, and stood ten to twelve feet in height.
They had not yet attained a traditional tribal culture, and existed in little more than loose associations. They employed a stone-age level of technology, wielding such weapons as leather shields, spears made with heads resembling Folsom points, and rocks. (TOS: "The Galileo Seven")
Thanks to the ingenuity of Mr. Scott, Spock was able to get the shuttle airborne and escaped from the creatures with the remainder of the crew. This, however, was not before one of the USS Enterprise's landing parties, Landing Party 2 led by Lieutenant Kelowitz, encountered these anthropoids on the planet. During the landing parties encounter, they received two casualties: Ensign O'Neill was killed by a spear and Lieutenant Immamura got a dislocated shoulder and severe lacerations. (TOS: "The Galileo Seven")