The Taurean system was an uninhabited star system consisting of a small star and at least two planets. It was located at the extreme edge of a sector visited for by Earth ships at least since 2119 but still unfamiliar to the United Federation of Planets by the mid-23rd century.
At least 150 years prior to 2269, Taurean II had been colonized by a humanoid species. In 2119, the first Earth ship was reported as missing. In 2269, the Federation had a recent discussion with the Klingons and the Romulans, in which it was revealed that ships were disappearing every 27.346 star years. The USS Enterprise was ordered to investigate the cause of the disappearances. On approach to the system, a signal sent from the Taurean system by the female Taureans temporarily affected the starship's male officers and thereby lured the vessel to the second planet, which was evacuated shortly thereafter. (TAS: "The Lorelei Signal"; ENT: "Two Days and Two Nights")