A status report (also known as a condition report) was a type of report which provided an update regarding the current situation of an entity, usually a starship or space station, during or after an event. Technological systems, including weapons and shields, propulsion, and sensors were routinely checked, as well as the entity's crew for casualties.
A status report on an entire ship could also be requested. The computer could give this report and included data on at least the warp core, power systems and levels, structural integrity, shields, weapons, communications, and waste systems. The Doctor, as an unranked Starfleet officer, had access to this report. (VOY: "Projections")
A ship's status report was also one of the responsibilities of the first officer. Chakotay once gave Captain Kathryn Janeway a ships status report after an incident with the Borg, which discussed the operation of removing Borg technology from the USS Voyager. (VOY: "The Gift")
Starfleet away team members were required to file status reports on a regular basis if they were on an away mission for an extended period of time. Naomi Wildman asked Neelix why her mother had not filed a report recently. (VOY: "Once Upon a Time")
The phrase "report" was commonly used by Starfleet captains and commanders as an abbreviation for a status report request, typically when it was unclear what had actually happened. In a situation aboard the bridge, the bridge officers would each state the condition of the systems they are responsible for, and occasionally engineering, sickbay, astrometrics, and other departments would also give a report.
A status report on a specific system, action, or situation was typically requested with the phrase "status."
Examples of status report requests
Admiral James T. Kirk asked Captain Spock for a condition report soon after the HMS Bounty exited a time warp upon returning to the 23rd century in the year 2286, but Spock was unable to provide one since the computer was offline. (Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home)
After Dukat and Kira Nerys captured a Klingon Bird-of-Prey, they found its computer logs included valuable status reports from several Klingon starships in the Cardassian Union. (DS9: "Return to Grace")
In 2376, the Delta Flyer encountered a dark matter lifeform while Captain Janeway was the lone person in the cockpit section and asked the crewmembers in the aft section for a report on their status. (VOY: "Good Shepherd")