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Star Fleet Medical Reference Manual

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Star Fleet medical referance cover.jpg

Cover image

Illustrator(s): Doug Drexler and Anthony Fredrickson
Publisher: Star Fleet Productions, Inc. (fan publication)
Ballantine Books
Editor(s): Eileen Palestine & Geoffrey Mandel
Published: October 1977
Pages: 160
Reference(s): ISBN 0345274733

The Star Fleet Medical Reference Manual is a reference book showing various anatomies of species (both humanoid and non) from the 23rd century, as well as various medical techniques.

The book was first released in 1977 as a fan publication by "Star Fleet Productions, Inc.", an off-shoot of the "The Federation Trading Post", a Star Trek store located in New York City in the mid-1970s, ran by Doug Drexler and Ron Barlow. (The Official Star Trek: Deep Space Nine Magazine, issue 11, p. 51) The same year, the book was picked up by Ballantine Books for an official release, and saw two printings, the first in October and the second a month later in November. Doug Drexler commented "It was an awful book, really. I cringe when I look at it now". (The Official Star Trek: Deep Space Nine Magazine, issue 11, p. 51)

Summary

A Publication of the Star Fleet Surgeon General.

WARNING: The Surgeon General's medical reference manual is intended as a basic source of medical information for starship crew members, and is not an alternative to treatment by a physician. First aid procedures should be used with caution, and only by trained personnel.

Excerpts of copyrighted sources are included for review purposes only, without any intention of infringement.

Contents

Hippocratic Oath

The first thing any physician should know is the Hippocratic Oath, created by Hippocrates (460-370 BC) cited as the "Father of Terran Medicine."

Introduction

An essay on the "Historical Trends in Medicine" credited to Professor Dr. John Gill, PhD, explains about how surgeons have been on ships created by Humans since the first ships were built, and that how those surgeons have written books on "naval medical practices," such as the first such one on Earth: "The Surgeon's Mate" by John Woodall in 1617 or "The Starship's Medical Chest and First Aid in Space" published in 2105.

Historical

A timeline of important medical discoveries, failures, and plagues that have affected various important planets, starting with the Great Plague ("skag maug") on Vulcan that killed thousands, and continuing through to the present "Federation Era." The timeline ends around 2260.

Various dates and historic information is, of course, later contradicted by both reality and future Star Trek series. One example is that the founding date of the United Federation of Planets is listed as in 2125, instead of 2161. Another example is that on the parallel Earth, all adults died on 1992 due to life prolonging experiments.

Medical

A "Periodic table of the Elements (Fifth Interstellar Geophysical Conference standard)" lists the elements 1 (hydrogen) to 129 (tricobalt), and 139 (kironide) and 140 (corbomite).

Interestingly, Kirk seemed to imply that corbomite was a fictional material he made up – but it is listed as having been discovered in 2262 at Starbase 27.

Following this is a list of all the elements, their chemical symbols, their atomic numbers (by mass number of most stable isotope), their atomic masses, the places of their discoveries, and the dates of their discoveries. (If Humans discovered it prior to first contact, that place and date is given.) All dates are by Earth calendar, unless specially marked using the Vulcan calendar, which lists Vulcan years post-Surak.

  • Radiation

Drugs

A variety of drugs, some referred to in TOS and some in TAS, are listed in a table that gives the following information about each:

  • their names together with their chemical compositions(depicted by structural formulae);
  • their histories, derivations, and origins;
  • their classifications;
  • the mechanisms of their actions;
  • their clinical uses;
  • the usual dosages of each that should be administered; and
  • possible side effects and toxic effects that can result from their employment.

Diseases

This section lists diseases, some afflicting characters in TOS and some afflicting characters in TAS. The table that so lists them provides, for each disease:

  • its name and description;
  • its cause or pathogen, or "etiological agent," if known;
  • the onset time of its symptoms and the incubation period of its cause, if known;
  • its signs and symptoms, if known; and
  • the prognosis and treatment of the patient afflicted with it, if known.

One disease NOT listed is "interphase psychosis," whose treatment Dr. Leonard McCoy is credited for having found to be a dilution of a theragen derivative with ethanol in a 3:500 ratio. TOS: "The Tholian Web"

Life sciences

  • Vulcan Physiology

Humanoid Anatomy

Average weight: 70 kilos (male)
45 kilos (female)
Blood pressure: 160/110 (male)
180/120 (female)
Andorian 
Insectoid biped (Homo indi)

Andorians are a blue-skinned humanoid species, average height 2.3 meters (male) and 1.8 meters (female). They have a life expectancy of 129 years (male) and 134 years (female).

Their eyes are unusual in that they do not process the whole spectrum of light, and must be used in unison with their antennae. Andorians vision is called "quadroscopic," and in retinal terms at least it is limited to tones of gray. Their auditory receptors (in their antennae) are more advanced then many other humanoids, capable of distinguishing independent sounds from a crowd. Also, to provide better focus for their senses, Andorians will lean their head down towards a person they are listening to, to obtain better focus from their monodirectional antennae.

Curiously, the Andorians are shown as NOT having external ears. This is based on the fact that throughout their TOS appearances, their thick white hair covered their ears – or where their ears would have been. The first prominently-displayed Andorian with ears was the Andorian Federation councilor from Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home, produced nine years later.
Also later contradicted is the fact that Andorians have non-moving antennae. Clearly shown in Star Trek: Enterprise, it was mentioned that they could "point their antennae" at people in DS9: "The Sound of Her Voice".
Average weight: 200 kilos (male)
100 kilos (female)
Blood pressure: 80/50 (male)
Gorn 
Reptiloid biped (Homo lacertae)

The Gorn are a green reptilian humanoid species, average height 2 meters (male) and 1.4 meters (female). They have a life expectancy of 55 years (male) and 21 years (female).

Being cold-blooded, they require ambient warmth and prefer to live in tropical climates. Their respiratory system is less advanced then most, and provides just enough oxygen to the body to remain functioning. One internal source of temperature is when a female Gorn gives birth: Gorn lay eggs, which hatch while still inside the oviduct – this only appears to be live birth. Their eyes are covered in thousands of facets, each with its own protective lid.

Average weight: 70 kilos (male)
60 kilos (female)
Blood pressure: 120/80
Human 
Hominid biped (Homo sol)

Humans are a red-blooded "humanoid" species (originators of the name) with average heights of 1.7 meters for males and 1.5 meters for females. They have a life expectancy of 115 years for males and 122 years for females.

Information on Human anatomy is abundant, and as such is not included in this particular manual. Texts regarding Humans are available at your local Star Fleet Supply Center for merely five credits. Or, for more information, you are advised to contact:

Star Fleet Surgeon General
Federation Institute of Medicine
1 Zefram Cochrane Plaza, New York City
Earth - Sol System - United Federation of Planets
According to the literature, within the next three hundred years, the scientific nomenclature for a Human will change from "Homo sapiens" to "Homo sol", referencing the home star of the species.
Average weight: 80 kilos (male)
50 kilos (female)
Blood pressure: 130/80
Klingon 
Klingonoid biped (Homo sagittarii)

Klingons are a well-known "humanoid" species famous for their use of bio-engineering by their government to selectively breed out the impure in their species, so only the best survive. They have an average heights of 1.9 meters (male) and 1.7 meters (female). They have a life expectancy of 82 years (male) and 69 years (female).

Their single stomach has two duodenum, which increase digestive flow efficiency to their small intestines. Special notice is given to their small intestine, and physicians should be careful: as their unique design is "stairway-like levels," which first twist downward, then upward again into the large intestine. The higher body temperature in Klingons are caused by their second liver.

Although before Star Trek: The Motion Picture, and thereby the first appearance of Klingon forehead ridges, the book still does predict that Klingons have indeed undergone some form of genetic engineering, as explained in the Star Trek: Enterprise episodes "Affliction" and "Divergence".
However, the book fails to predict the numerous redundant systems, or "brak'lul," explained in TNG: "Ethics", even though they are shown to have a redundant liver, and hence more anatomical variety than most anatomies in the book.
The book also fails to correctly state the average life expectancy of Klingons, as shown for Kang, Kor and Koloth in DS9, especially in DS9: "Blood Oath", which should probably be measured with 150+ years.
Tellarite anatomy - Star Fleet Medical Reference Manual
Tellarite anatomy
Average weight: 80 kilos (male)
150 kilos (female)
Blood pressure: 160/110 (male)
180/120 (female)
Tellarite 
Artiodactyloid biped (Homo cygni)

Tellarites are a vaguely pig-like humanoid species, known to share several characteristics with the non-sentient lifeform. They have an average heights of 1.8 meters (male) and 2.2 meters (female). They have a life expectancy of 87 years (male) and 93 years (female).

Tellarites legs end in two-toed feet with hooves, their femur is notable for missing the third trochanter, and their fibula is vestigial. Their digestive system is designed for plants, and as such they have two stomachs which utilize bacteria to break down the food before entering their single intestine. They often have multiple births, and their sense of smell and hearing is advanced for a humanoid, while their eyesight is sub-par.

The book seems to imply that Tellarites are herbivores, and that their stomachs cannot digest meat. But Enterprise shows that canines are a delicacy on Tellar Prime. Also, although no close up has been specifically focused on the legs or feet of Tellarites, the shows do not seem to support the "hoofed, pig-like feet" theory used here.
Vulcan anatomy - Star Fleet Medical Reference Manual
Vulcan anatomy
Average weight: 70 kg (male)
50 kg (female)
Average height: 2.0 meters (male)
1.7 meters (female)
Blood pressure: 80/40
Vulcan 
Vulcanoid biped (Homo Eridani)

Vulcans are a green-blooded humanoid species with average heights of 2.0 meters (male) and 1.7 meters (female). They have a life expectancy of 250 years.

Only minor variations exist between the Vulcanoid species, such as the Rigelians of Rigel V, and the Romulans. For more information on the Vulcans, refer to the "Vulcan Physiology" portion of this manual.

Average Vulcan anatomy (Star Fleet Medical Reference Manual)

Males height = 2.0 meters (6'6") Males weight = 70kg (154.3 lbs)

Females height = 1.7 meters (5'6") Females weight = 50kg (110.2 lbs)

Body temperature = 32.78C (91F) Heart rate = 242 bpm Blood pressure = 80/40



Brain Development 
...
Cranial Development 
...
Heart Development 
...

Intelligent Aliens

This section lists sapient non-humanoid alien beings and identifies either the planets to which they are indigenous or, as in the cases of Korob and Sylvia, the planets where they were found.

The Excalbian race and the horta are both indigenous to the planets where they were found.

Encountered in TOS: "The Savage Curtain".

Encountered in TOS: "The Devil in the Dark".

Encountered in TOS: "Is There in Truth No Beauty?"

Encountered in TOS: "Catspaw", with "only the information hastily gathered by tricorder" being provided.

Encountered in TOS: "The Tholian Web".

The book seems to imply that Tholians are crystalline beings, and that they would not be able to survive in a cooler, oxygen-based environment. But no specific data has been provided on Tholians except mention of their presences on Earth, which contradicts this.
Also, Tholians have thus far only been distinctly shown in TOS: "The Tholian Web". Even then their true physiologies remained unknown.

The Kelvans are NOT shown in their true forms.

Parasites

Of these two parasites, only the "flying" neural parasites and the tribble have definitely been shown.
Destroying the neural parasites of the Twenty-Third Century proved to be the focal point and ultimate object of TOS: "Operation -- Annihilate!"
The tribble was the dominant creature of TOS: "The Trouble with Tribbles", in which Korax referred to the other two, neither of which was actually shown, in his insults of James T. Kirk.

Plants


  • Psionics
The section on psionics in the book seems to imply that no possessor of psionic powers can be trusted not to be evil. Also, it credits "the terran scientist Kirlian" with detecting the Human aura; the claims of Semyon Kirlian that the technique of Kirlian corona discharge photography depicts the Human aura have not been conclusively substantiated. Some fans have speculated that this section, whose writer is not specifically credited, was written by Dr. Leonard McCoy, and that he wrote it as a bitter attack on any psionic phenomena.
  • Chiropractic

First aid

  • Artificial Ventilation
  • Carry Techniques
    • Three-man lift
    • Chair carry
    • Four-handed seat
    • Two-handed seat
    • Pulling the victim
    • Lifting & supporting the victim
  • Classification of Burns (Vulcan)
  • Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)
  • Dislocation of the Superior Cortex (Andorian)
  • Mouth-to-mouth Resuscitation (Vulcan)
  • Foreign Body Obstruction of the Airway
  • Mugato Bite
  • Opening the Mouth
  • Vulcan Cardiac Arrest

Equipment

Background

Schoolroom table

Numerous illustrations in DS9: "The Nagus"

Star Trek: Deep Space Nine used several of the images from the "Intelligent Aliens" and "Parasites" chapter on an LCARS graphic in the back of the schoolroom, making the internal physiology shown in the book at least partially canon. These included the Denebian slime devils, Regulan bloodworms, tribbles, Excalbians, the Horta, neural parasites and Korob's and Sylvia's species. Geoffrey Mandel created these images for the Starfleet Medical Reference Manual and later used these images when he was a production assistant for Star Trek: Deep Space Nine.

This is not the first or last example of Star Trek using the non-canon reference books, and sometimes even the unauthorized ones, in the television series. Some of the early Star Trek films used images from the Star Fleet Technical Manual by Franz Joseph, while Star Trek: The Motion Picture also used images of Joseph's Constitution-class starship blueprints. Also, the RPG reference book Among the Clans was used by the writing staff of Star Trek: Enterprise when creating the ushaan, as well as making Andoria a frozen planet.

Other publications have utilized images from the book as well even though, by that time, Star Trek: Deep Space Nine had featured them. Star Trek: The Magazine featured several animal species in an issue, and included the internal anatomy of the tribble. Star Trek: The Starfleet Survival Guide features a diagram of the Denebian slime devil that first appeared in this book.

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