Template:Disambiguate A research station (also called a space laboratory or science station) was a facility specializing in scientific research. Research stations could be space stations or surface facilities.
Research stations often performed scientific research that was too dangerous to conduct in populated areas. Some stations, like the Regula I Space Laboratory, also conducted highly classified research. (Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan)
One example of a surface research station was the Federation research station on the planet of Ventax II, some of whose personnel was taken hostage as the facility was overrun during a riot in a period of civil unrest on the planet in 2367. Given that this station was located in an inhabited area, its area of research was unlikely to be dangerous. (TNG: "Devil's Due").