Pierre de Fermat was an Earth lawyer and mathematician who lived in France, Europe from 1601 to 1665. Fermat was given credit for the development of modern calculus on Earth. Upon his death, Fermat left behind a note claiming to have discovered "remarkable proof" for what became known as Fermat's last theorem.
His theorem was not proved until 1995 by Andrew Wiles, though many others, including Jean-Luc Picard, Tobin and Jadzia Dax, worked on more original approaches to the proof since. (TNG: "The Royale"; DS9: "Facets")