Osmium was a strong metal, often utilized for its thick shielding properties.
NX class starships of the 22nd century used osmium as the primary shielding in their warp nacelles and the outer shell of the catwalk.
This thick protection helped the crew of Enterprise NX-01 on two occasions; when they had to pass through a neutronic storm, the entire crew took refuge in the catwalk, and the osmium protected them from the deadly neutronic radiation. (ENT: "The Catwalk")
The crew took refuge there again, when non-corporeal beings tried to take over their bodies. It was found that they couldn't pass through the osmium alloy of the catwalk. (ENT: "The Crossing")
Much of the artificial surface rocks of the Kalandan homeworld were composed of a diburnium-osmium alloy. (TOS: "That Which Survives")
Osmium levels were an element in the deflector shielding utilized by Starfleet Constitution-class starhips in the 2250s in the alternate reality. (Star Trek Into Darkness, display graphic )