The New Zealand Penal Settlement was a Federation penal colony located on Earth in the New Zealand island group, east of the continent of Australia. Much like all rehabilitation colonies, this location was used to treat inmates and was a possible location for Maquis prisoners to be placed.
Tom Paris served eighteen months in the New Zealand Settlement until he was granted release and assigned to the USS Voyager as an observer, by permission of Captain Kathryn Janeway. (VOY: "Caretaker", "Non Sequitur", "Relativity")
After Richard Bashir pleaded guilty to the illegal genetic engineering of his son Julian Bashir in 2373, he was sentenced to spend two years in a minimum security penal colony in New Zealand. (DS9: "Doctor Bashir, I Presume")