Motor cortex reconstruction is a surgical procedure to repair deep neural tissue damage. The procedure is considered relatively simple for a skilled physician.
The first steps of the procedure are to establish the axon connections and then test for synaptic potentials. The final steps are to repair the preganglionic fibers in the spinal column, and then to restore the myelin sheath. The procedure makes use of cortical analeptics.
In 2373, The Doctor performed a motor cortex reconstruction on Tom Paris, who had been hit by a Swarm species neuroelectric weapon. However, due to memory fragmentation he couldn't remember the procedure, and Kes had to guide him through it. (VOY: "The Swarm")