- "Lies! All lies! You are the greatest liar I have ever met!"
- - Garth of Izar
A lie is a deliberate statement which is untrue, usually as a means to deceive or mislead another individual. Someone who told a lie was called a "liar".
One of the great myths surrounding Vulcans was that the race was incapable of telling a lie. While generally believed to be accurate, Vulcans were in fact capable of telling lies, usually justifying this action as a logical course towards a means to an end. An example of this would be lying to carry out a secret mission or lying to protect the lives of others. Both Spock and Valeris were capable of lying; although Valeris's motives were somewhat dubious. Tuvok states that it's a myth and hasn't found a logical need to lie after an inquiry by Seven of Nine whether or not they were capable of lying. (TOS: "The Enterprise Incident"; Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country; VOY: "Hunters")
Miranda Jones once called James T. Kirk a liar, proclaiming "It's a lie!" when Kirk stated that Jones and tried to murder Spock while mind melding with a Medeusan. (TOS: "Is There in Truth No Beauty?").
Data once told Timothy that androids do not lie; however, Data himself was very capable of lying. Data once lied to the entire crew of the USS Enterprise regarding an incident where the Paxans erased the crew's memory (except for Data) due to a xenophobic fear bordering on the extreme. Data also once lied to an entire bar full of patrons in an effort to make Ro Laren appear as a Maquis sympathizer as part of an elaborate plan to infiltrate a local resistance cell. In both of these cases however, Data was acting under direct orders and not by his own design. Data also lied to Samuel Clemens about the purpose of a machine he was building when displaced in time, most likely in accordance with Starfleet's temporal displacement policy. (TNG: "Hero Worship", "Clues", "Preemptive Strike", "Time's Arrow, Part II")