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Latin was an ancient Human language, the original language of the Romans.

Many Earth proverbs were in Latin and were often used as mottos of starships or installations. A course based on this language was taught at Starfleet Academy. (TNG: "The Game")

When Wesley Crusher was on leave from Starfleet Academy, Captain Jean-Luc Picard checked on his Latin by asking him:

"Quomodo tua Latinitas est?" ("How is your Latin?")

Wesley responded:

"Praestat quam prius." ("It's better than before.")

whereupon the Captain responded:

"Oppido bonum." ("Very good.") (TNG: "The Game")

The term arboretum was derived from the Latin word for tree, arbor. This connection was noted by the Cairn Hedril in 2370. (TNG: "Dark Page")

Q remembered Vash was called persona non grata on Betazed. (DS9: "Q-Less")

The holographic Henry Burleigh advised his governess Lucille Davenport, played by Captain Kathryn Janeway: "In ullam rem ne properemus", ("Let's not rush into anything") and asked her whether her Latin was a little rusty when the Captain didn't understand his remark. Janeway admitted that her Latin was indeed a little rusty. (VOY: "Learning Curve")

Mottoes
Phrase Translation Application Citation
Ad Astra per Aspera "Reach for the Stars Through Adversity" Earth Starfleet, 2161 ENT: "These Are the Voyages..."
Audentes fortuna iuvat "Fortune favors the bold" Columbia NX-02 ENT: "Home", "Affliction", "Divergence"
Audentes Fortuna Imperii "The bold (are) the fortune of the empire ISS Avenger ENT: "In a Mirror, Darkly, Part II"
Caveat emptor "Let the buyer beware" Applied to the Ferengi Alliance tactics by Data  TNG: "The Last Outpost"
Ex luna scientia "From the moon, knowledge" NASA ENT: "First Flight"
Ex astris scientia "From the stars, knowledge" Starfleet Academy TNG: "The First Duty"
Inter Arma Enim Silent Leges  "In time of war, the law falls silent" Applied to Section 31 tactics by William Ross DS9: "Inter Arma Enim Silent Leges"
Res Gesta Per Excellentiam "Achievement through excellence" NASA ENT: "First Flight"
Tempus fugit "Time Flees" or "Time Flies" Spoken by Ducane VOY: "Relativity"

Appendices

Background information

Several episode titles derive from Latin phrases including:

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