Jabez Wilson was a fictional pawnbroker from the Sherlock Holmes story, "The Red-Headed League", who owned a pawn shop in Saxe-Coburg in London. He was able to land a high-paying position in the Red-Headed League thanks to his fiery red hair. Unbeknownst to him, however, the league was in fact a ruse created by the criminals John Clay, who was in his employ under the pseudonym Vincent Spaulding, and William Morris, to keep him occupied while they attempted to use his pawn shop in a plot to steal French gold.
In 2365, Data, while masquerading as Sherlock Holmes, saw Jabez Wilson walking down the street toward the home of the Red-Headed League and deduced from a bell cord and a running youth that he was about to become the victim of a murder. Although Wilson was never in danger of murder in the original story, the holodeck had created a program based on several Holmes stories, and Data used his knowledge of these stories to come to his conclusion. (TNG: "Elementary, Dear Data")