Horatio Nelson was a vice admiral of His Britannic Majesty's Royal Navy in the early 19th century on Earth. In 1805 he led his fleet to victory against a larger combined French and Spanish force at the Battle of Trafalgar, the decisive naval engagement of the Napoleonic Wars. Nelson was wounded in the battle, dying below decks on his flagship HMS Victory.
While deciding whether or not to retreat from a Borg cube laying in wait for the USS Enterprise-D in 2366, Captain Picard thought of Nelson. Talking with Guinan, he recalled the Admiral's tour of the Victory preceding his final battle. (TNG: "The Best of Both Worlds")