An encephalographic profile was a study done by medical practitioners on a patient suffering from a mental breakdown.
In 2373, The Doctor attached a neurocortical monitor to Lieutenant Tuvok's parietal bone after he apparently had a breakdown on the bridge of the USS Voyager. The Doctor told Tuvok that the monitor would record a complete encephalographic profile on Tuvok if he experienced another episode. The Doctor later discovered a memory virus in Tuvok's brain which was causing him to experience a traumatic memory of a young girl falling from a precipice. The virus was later destroyed by The Doctor using thoron radiation. (VOY: "Flashback")