|Christopher Pike (2267)|
|Played by:||Jeffrey Hunter|
|Christopher Pike (2254)|
Birth, and encounter at RigelEdit
As an adult in 2254, Pike led a landing party to Rigel VII. On this mission, the group was attacked by Kalar warriors, in what seemed to be an abandoned fortress. Three crewmen, including Pike's own yeoman, were killed, while an additional seven, including Spock, were injured, some severely. The loss weighed heavily on Pike; with all the strain and overwork that followed, he began to question his own continuance as starship commander. The Enterprise then set out for Vega colony to hospitalize the sick and injured. (TOS: "The Cage")
The Talosian IncidentEdit
En route to the Vega colony, the Enterprise intercepted an old-style radio-interference distress call carrying the call letters of the SS Columbia, a survey expedition from the American Continent Institute which had been lost in the Talos star group in 2236. At Pike's reluctant command, the Enterprise diverted and traced the signal to a crash site on Talos IV. After an initial encounter with supposed survivors, including an out-of-place young beauty named Vina, it was revealed that the native Talosians had used telepathy to create the illusion of an encampment; all the survivors except Vina were dead.
Pike was overpowered and kidnapped, and placed in a Talosian zoo. There, the Talosians attempted to get him to mate with Vina, to create a population of illusion-controlled Human servants. They forced Pike to relive old memories and placed him in illusory scenarios of lives he could have, if he abandoned his career as a starship captain. The scenarios included reliving the fight on Rigel VII, a picnic on Earth with his favorite horse Tango, and an illusory day in the life of an Orion slave-trader dealing in green animal women. When Pike refused to mate with Vina, the Talosians began to take steps to convince Pike to breed with other females of his crew; to this end, Yeoman J.M. Colt and Pike's first officer, Number One, were captured.
Inside his cell, Pike managed to capture and hold captive The Keeper. Pike then threatened to break the Talosian's neck if he resisted, and all the illusions ceased from that point forward. Escaping with the others to the outside of the Talosian complex, Pike had Number One set a phaser to overload, in an effort to make a statement to the Talosians about holding Humans captive. Indeed, the Talosians believed this violent reaction made Humans unsuitable for breeding. Vina's true appearance was then revealed, and Pike convinced the Talosians to restore her illusion of health and beauty while letting himself and his crew members go free. Although the experience with the illusory worlds restored Pike's confidence in his command, it was recommended that all contact with the Talosians' powers be restricted. General Order 7 was enacted, threatening the death penalty should any travel there, for fear of the Federation falling to illusory indulgence. (TOS: "The Menagerie, Part I", "The Menagerie, Part II")
After a long tour as captain of the Enterprise (eleven years, four months, and five days of which were spent with junior science officer Spock as a loyal member of his crew) Pike was promoted to fleet captain in the mid-2260s, at which point James T. Kirk took command. Only a few years thereafter, Pike was aboard a training vessel, an old Class J starship, when a baffle plate ruptured and exposed many helpless trainees and cadets to delta-particle radiation. Pike dragged many cadets from the danger but, in the process, was hopelessly crippled by the rays. The disfigured Pike was put on a form of advanced life support which sustained his withered body and life functions, but he was too weak and incapacitated to ever move or respond to physical stimuli again. A wheelchair that was tuned to his brain could use blinking light signals to respond to simple queries in the affirmative (one flash) or negative (two flashes), but that was the extent to which he could communicate.
Return to TalosEdit
In 2267, after being contacted by the Talosians, Commander Spock devised a plan to use a fake message in an attempt to divert the Enterprise (of which he was now first officer under Captain James T. Kirk) to Starbase 11, where Pike was hospitalized. Spock's intention, risking execution if caught, was to deliver Pike to Talos IV, where the Talosians could tap Pike's mind with telepathy and illusions, providing a hospice of sorts in sparing him from dying helplessly in his lifeless body.
Pike, also contacted beforehand by the Talosians, at first refused Spock's plot to spirit him away to Talos IV. However, on the journey to the forbidden planet, images of Pike's earlier experience on Talos IV – presented during Spock's on-board court-martial (a court-martial later revealed to have been concocted by the Talosians) – convinced Pike to accept the Talosians' offer.
On Talos IV, with the help of the Talosians, Pike lived out a life of illusion with Vina, in which his devastating handicap no longer existed. Pike went into retirement from Starfleet active duty and lived on Talos IV permanently, with no further outside contact, since the secrecy of the Talosian power made his fate largely unknown. (TOS: "The Menagerie, Part I", "The Menagerie, Part II")
In memoriam Edit
The Christopher Pike Medal of Valor was named in Pike's honor. Benjamin Sisko and Solok received the award in the 24th century. (DS9: "Tears of the Prophets", "Take Me Out to the Holosuite") On the planet Cestus III, Pike City was named after him. (DS9: "Family Business", "The Way of the Warrior") There was also a shuttlecraft Pike carried on board the USS Enterprise-D. (TNG: "The Most Toys")
|Commanding officers of the starships Enterprise|
|Enterprise NX-01:||Archer • T'Pol • Tucker • Lorian|
|USS Enterprise:||April • Pike • Kirk • Decker • Spock|
|USS Enterprise-D:||Picard • Riker • Jellico • Halloway|
|ISS Enterprise NX-01:||Forrest|
|ISS Enterprise (NCC-1701):||Pike • Kirk|
|USS Enterprise (alternate reality):||Pike • Kirk|
Memorable quotes Edit
"I'm tired of deciding which mission is too risky and which isn't. And who's going on the landing party and who doesn't. And who lives. And who dies."
"You either live life – bruises, skinned knees and all – or you turn your back on it and start dying."
"But we're not here. Neither of us. We're in a menagerie, a cage!"
"It's just that I can't get used to having a woman on the bridge."
(Number One looks surprised)
"No offense, lieutenant. You're different, of course."
"What are we running here, a cadet ship, Number One? Are we ready or not?"
"All decks report ready, sir."
Christopher Pike was originally named Robert April, which was then changed to James Winter. (Star Trek Creator: The Authorized Biography of Gene Roddenberry, pp. 206 & 209) James Blish noted that the scripts for Star Trek's original unaired pilot, "The Cage", were "heavily revised in various handwritings and Pike confusingly appears from time to time as 'Captain Spring' and 'Captain Winter.'" The revised draft of "The Cage" from 20 November 1964 lists him as Captain James Winter.  However, that moniker was used only briefly. The name change from James Winter to Christopher Pike was made on 25 November. (Star Trek Creator: The Authorized Biography of Gene Roddenberry, p. 206) In reality, the American author Kevin McFadden (b. 1954) took Christopher Pike as his pen name.
Original casting Edit
Trying to find a suitable lead actor for Star Trek was the most difficult factor in casting "The Cage". The role had several requirements. These included physical attractiveness, the ability to project a huge degree of personal warmth to increase the chances of likeability and, thirdly, believability in the part, such as by looking athletic and being convincing in a position of leadership. (Star Trek: The Original Series 365, p. 007; The Making of Star Trek, p. 111) By the time Star Trek started casting for the lead actor, so many other series were in production that there were very few performers available. Those who were could afford to be selective about what part they took. (The Making of Star Trek, p. 111)
Before Gene Roddenberry wrote "The Cage" (but once the captain's name was Christopher Pike), he asked Lloyd Bridges to accept Star Trek's lead role. (The Star Trek Interview Book, p. 9; These Are the Voyages: TOS Season One, "Chapter Three: Designing Star Trek") "When I approached him with it," stated Roddenberry, "he said, 'Gene, I like you, I've worked with you before in the past, but I've seen science fiction and I don't want to be within a hundred miles of it....'" (The Star Trek Interview Book, p. 9) Not only had Bridges seen science fiction; he had been burned by it. Less than two years had passed since Daily Variety had complained about an episode of The Lloyd Bridges Show wherein he had played an astronaut who landed on an alien planet. Thus, Bridges was not eager to participate in another outer space adventure any time soon. (These Are the Voyages: TOS Season One, "Chapter Three: Designing Star Trek") Concerning the performer's anxious reaction to the prospect of featuring on Star Trek, Roddenberry noted, "I understood what he meant then." (The Star Trek Interview Book, p. 9) This was because Roddenberry accepted that science fiction of the time was poor. Hence, he thought the choice Bridges made "wasn't a foolish move on his part." (Star Trek - Where No One Has Gone Before, p. 9) Roddenberry attempted to make a persuasive argument that he could do science fiction differently, but was not yet sure himself if he could manage to do so. (The Star Trek Interview Book, p. 9) Ultimately, Bridges made it clear that he strongly believed appearing in an outer-space series would obliterate his future credibility.
Following Lloyd Bridges' rejection, Gene Roddenberry spent several weeks in search of a suitable actor to play the part. (Star Trek Memories, paperback ed., p. 41) "I came to realize [...] that there just weren't a lot of actors who would do it," he related. "I was talking about what was in many people's eyes a silly show." (The Star Trek Interview Book, p. 9) Nonetheless, many actors were considered. Roddenberry noted, "We went through a lot of film in casting the part." (Star Trek - Where No One Has Gone Before, p. 9) Several casting consultants submitted lists of names to Roddenberry, which he then analyzed. One such list was comprised of forty names, including the following:
- Nick Adams
- Jack Cassidy
- Mike Connors
- Frank Converse
- Ray Danton
- Howard Duff
- Steve Forrest
- Peter Graves
- Sterling Hayden
- Earl Holliman
- Skip Homeier
- Ed Kemmer
- Robert Loggia
- Jack Lord
- Cameron Mitchell
- Leslie Nielson
- Hugh O'Brien
- Rhodes Reason
- Jason Robards, Jr.
- George Segal
- William Shatner
- Robert Stack
- Warren Stevens
- Guy Stockwell
- Liam Sullivan
- Rod Taylor
- Efram Zimbalist, Jr.
Though not included in the above list, James Coburn was an additional possibility; Majel Barrett strongly suggested him to Gene Roddenberry and a group of other men. Barrett found her suggestion rejected because Coburn – in the opinions of the aforementioned men, including Roddenberry – "wasn't sexy enough," although Roddenberry later revised his judgment. (Star Trek Creator: The Authorized Biography of Gene Roddenberry, p. 209; The Star Trek Interview Book, p. 9)
After analyzing the lists from his casting consultants, Gene Roddenberry sent a shorter list of names to the television network NBC for their comments. This list included James Coburn, Jeffrey Hunter, Dan O'Herlihy, Patrick O'Neal, and Tom Tryon. The next day, he was notified by Herbert F. Solow, via memo, that the network was "very much against" Jeffrey Hunter and two others on the list. NBC proposed several alternatives, including Patrick McGoohan and Mel Farrar. The memo ended by saying, "There was a strong reaction for both James Coburn and Patrick O'Neal." (Star Trek Creator: The Authorized Biography of Gene Roddenberry, pp. 209-210)
Gene Roddenberry finally selected Jeffrey Hunter – who had recently portrayed Jesus in King of Kings – to feature as Captain Pike. (Star Trek Memories, paperback ed., p. 41) "Jeff Hunter seemed to be about the closest to what I had in mind for a captain," Roddenberry stated. (Star Trek - Where No One Has Gone Before, p. 9)
At this point, Robert Butler – director of "The Cage" – was unfamiliar with Jeffrey Hunter, who was aged thirty-seven. (These Are the Voyages: TOS Season One, "Chapter Three: Designing Star Trek") Butler remembered, "Jeffrey Hunter had probably been cast beyond my control, which is the way it goes, but I certainly knew of him." (Star Trek Monthly issue 6, p. 53)
Joseph D'Agosta, a casting director who Gene Roddenberry consulted, later explained that the casting of Jeffrey Hunter as Pike was "a network-producer-Desilu decision." (Star Trek Creator: The Authorized Biography of Gene Roddenberry, p. 211) D'Agosta clarified about the actor, "That was a selection made from the name list given by the network and the studio. I was not even involved in that." (The Star Trek Interview Book, p. 213) However, D'Agosta also laid claim to having somehow "dealt" with Hunter from a casting perspective. (Star Trek Memories, paperback ed., p. 58)
Though Jeffrey Hunter had found starring as the title character in the short-lived television series Temple Houston to have been a disastrous experience (one year earlier), he nonetheless accepted the Star Trek role, agreeing to make another TV pilot. The reference book These Are the Voyages: TOS Season One ("Chapter Three: Designing Star Trek") postulates that he did so while possibly motivated by "fearing his initial failure in television had hurt his chances to reclaim big screen status." In a comment Hunter made upon acquiring the Captain Pike role, he joked that any actor able to rule over all of Christianity could easily command a starship crew. After some typical haggling between agents, Hunter was hired. (Star Trek Memories, paperback ed., p. 41) Hunter was contracted to play Pike over the course of sixteen days, receiving US$10,000 in return. (Star Trek Creator: The Authorized Biography of Gene Roddenberry, p. 211) The captain was the final role in "The Cage" to be cast. (The Making of Star Trek, p. 111) Hunter's stunt double for the role, Robert Herron, also appeared in "The Cage".
At about this time, Jeffrey Hunter was highly enthusiastic about Star Trek, particularly about the potential of the series. He talked enthusiastically about the project, after production on "The Cage" ended. In an interview for the Los Angeles Citizen News, he raved, "It's a great format because the writers will have a free hand [regarding the kinds of stories they could tell]." In addition, he told the same publication (on 30 January 1965) that the thing which most intrigued him about the show was the high reliability of its projections as regards the future. (These Are the Voyages: TOS Season One, "Chapter Four: Test Flight & Filming 'The Cage'" & "Chapter Five: Double or Nothing: A Second Pilot")
On 19 March 1965, Gene Roddenberry sent a note to Jeffrey Hunter, inviting him, his wife and a few other people to a Desilu screening of "The Cage". (These Are the Voyages: TOS Season One, "Chapter Five: Double or Nothing: A Second Pilot"; Star Trek Creator: The Authorized Biography of Gene Roddenberry, p. 225) Although NBC had unofficially revealed they planned to give the unprecedented go-ahead for the making of a second pilot (having been dissatisfied with "The Cage"), Hunter's contract required his participation in only one pilot, not two. If the already-produced pilot sold, he would be locked into a five-year contract. If the pilot was not purchased, he was contractually free to pursue other interests. (These Are the Voyages: TOS Season One, "Chapter Five: Double or Nothing: A Second Pilot") Recollected Herb Solow, "We therefore had to devise a plan that would enable us to keep Jeff Hunter in the fold [....] We [...] looked forward to running the completed pilot for our star, Jeff Hunter. We hoped it would convince him to do another pilot." (Inside Star Trek: The Real Story, paperback ed., p. 63)
The screening, which turned out to be a fateful event, was held on 25 March 1965. (Star Trek Creator: The Authorized Biography of Gene Roddenberry, p. 225) Remembered Herb Solow, "Gene and I waited in the Desilu projection room for [Jeff Hunter] [...] to arrive. He never did." Hunter's wife, Joan 'Dusty' Bartlett, attended the ceremony in his stead. "We traded hellos, and I nodded to Gene," Solow carried on. "He flicked the projection booth intercom switch. 'Let's go.' And so it went. As the end credits rolled, and the lights came up, Jeff Hunter's wife gave us our answer: 'This is not the kind of show Jeff wants to do, and besides, it wouldn't be good for his career. Jeff Hunter is a movie star.' Mrs. Hunter was very polite and very firm. She said her good-byes and left, having surprisingly and swiftly removed our star from our new pilot." (Inside Star Trek: The Real Story, paperback ed., p. 63) Having decided she hated the pilot episode, Bartlett didn't want Hunter to remain in the role of Captain Pike. She convinced him that, being a dutiful husband, he didn't want to resume the persona either and that science fiction was beneath him. (Star Trek Creator: The Authorized Biography of Gene Roddenberry, p. 225; The Star Trek Interview Book, p. 10) In contrast to how Pike firstly contemplates resigning his commission and retiring from Starfleet but later changes his mind, Hunter's change of heart led him to want to quit. (Star Trek: The Original Series 365, p. 007)
In his 1993 autobiography Star Trek Memories (paperback ed., p. 70), William Shatner alleged that Jeffrey Hunter was essentially "fired" from playing the part of Captain Pike. Shatner asserted, "Apparently there were problems with Jeffrey. Not while he was shooting or on the set or anything like that, but afterward. They started when the go-ahead came in for the second pilot, and Hunter's wife, who was an ex-model, suddenly started coming to production meetings. Evidently she hated the first pilot, and as a result she began to frequently storm into Gene's office, loudly making demands like 'from now on, my Jeff must only be shot from certain angles,' and apparently it became 'Jeff wants this' and 'Jeff demands that.' Gene later told me that he'd much rather be dealing with Jeff and his agent, or even Jeff and a gorilla, than Jeff and his wife. He continued that there were so many tantrums, restrictions and ultimatums being laid out on the table that he finally thought, 'Well, I can't possibly do an entire series like this. They'll drive me nuts.'" In Leonard Nimoy's 1995 autobiography I Am Spock (hardback ed., p. 32), Nimoy agreed with Shatner, saying, "Jeff Hunter was let go when his wife began to represent him and made what Gene considered excessive demands."
In reality, Jeffrey Hunter – having decided to give up the character of Pike – made his feelings known to Gene Roddenberry within two weeks of the Desilu screening. On 5 April 1965, Roddenberry responded with a private letter between them in which he stated, "I am told you have decided not to go ahead with Star Trek. This has to be your decision, of course, and I must respect it. You may be certain I hold no grudge or ill feelings and expect to continue to reflect publicly and privately the high regard I learned for you during the production of our pilot." (Star Trek Creator: The Authorized Biography of Gene Roddenberry, pp. 225-226)
Even though a second Star Trek pilot was commissioned, Jeffrey Hunter was insistent that he not participate in the making of that episode, entitled "Where No Man Has Gone Before". "Business affairs negotiated with Jeffrey Hunter," remembered Oscar Katz, "and we all thought it was the usual actor/network situation. They don't want to do it for reason XYZ, and it's a device [...] for getting the price up. We kept increasing the price and he kept saying no. One day I said, 'What's up with Jeffrey Hunter?' and I was told he just won't do it at any price. Finally I said, 'Tell Jeffrey Hunter to get lost. Tell him we're going to do the pilot without him.'" (Captains' Logs: The Unauthorized Complete Trek Voyages, p. 14) Shortly thereafter, once the trade papers began reporting about a second Star Trek pilot, Hunter told J.D. Spiro for his Milwaukee Journal report, "I was asked to do it, but, had I accepted, I would have been tied up much longer than I care to be." Hunter's decision to depart was propelled specifically by the fact he wanted to focus on his career in feature films, instead of resuming his participation in television productions. (These Are the Voyages: TOS Season One, "Chapter Five: Double or Nothing: A Second Pilot") In his autobiography, Shatner acknowledged that the "official" story reported over years had been that Hunter turned down the role of Pike and was unable to commit to the series due to a film commitment, despite Shatner disputing this account. (Star Trek Memories, paperback ed., p. 70) Hunter's departure left an opening for the series lead. "I just had to pick someone else," noted Roddenberry. William Shatner was who he picked, Shatner going on to regularly appear as James T. Kirk. (The Star Trek Interview Book, p. 11) The replacing of Hunter with Shatner was reported in Daily Variety on 4 May 1965. (These Are the Voyages: TOS Season One, "Chapter Five: Double or Nothing: A Second Pilot")
Desilu and NBC executives had discussed possibly broadcasting "The Cage" as a movie-of-the-week if Star Trek did not proceed as a series. After that pilot episode was rejected, Jeffrey Hunter was approached by Desilu; they requested he rejoin the cast in order to enable the filming of enough additional footage to make the movie option viable. (Star Trek: The Original Series 365, p. 092) The year was 1965 when Gene Roddenberry proposed to film added scenes to lengthen "The Cage" into a feature-length movie. He also planned to try organizing a theatrical release for it. (Inside Star Trek: The Real Story, paperback ed., p. 251) Hunter refused, though, to have any participation in these plans. (Inside Star Trek: The Real Story, paperback ed., p. 251) While Roddenberry was scripting "The Menagerie, Part I" and "The Menagerie, Part II" a year later, the production staff even had some puzzlement about whether Hunter would okay segments of footage from "The Cage" to be reused throughout the forthcoming two-parter. On 14 September 1966, Robert Justman wrote a fairly apprehensive message to Ed Perlstein at Desilu Legal, wherein – among other related points – Justman wondered, "Does Jeff Hunter's original contract allow for this sort of contingency? Perhaps you ought to check it out with his agent." (These Are the Voyages: TOS Season One) Hunter eventually agreed for the necessary archive footage featuring himself as Captain Pike to be reused in the two-parter. He was paid US$5,000 for the reuse of this footage and his residuals were minimal. (Star Trek Creator: The Authorized Biography of Gene Roddenberry, p. 259) On 18 October 1966, Ed Perlstein wrote a memo to Shirley Stahnke at Desilu Business Affairs, announcing the news he had closed a deal to pay Hunter $5,000. (These Are the Voyages: TOS Season One) "The Menagerie, Part II" additionally featured archive footage of Robert Herron as Christopher Pike.
Recasting the part Edit
The idea of casting another actor in the role of Christopher Pike for the contemporary "envelope" around the archive material showing past events in the "The Menagerie" two-parter was devised by Gene Roddenberry, during the writing of the two-parter. It was to be used in the foreseeable eventuality that Jeffrey Hunter declined to take part in the envelope scenes himself. After Roddenberry turned in his first draft script for part one of the duology (on 21 September 1966), Herb Solow sent the teleplay draft to Grant Schloss and Jerry Stanley at NBC, telling them, "Should Jeff Hunter's wife won't [sic] agree to let him appear in any envelope, Roddenberry has come up with an interesting device to treat Pike [sic] Character (Hunter) as having been injured beyond recognition – this so the actor can play the part." (These Are the Voyages: TOS Season One) The dramatic device of disfiguring Pike beyond recognition did allow a replacement actor to appear in the same role, apparently at an older age. (Star Trek: The Original Series Sketchbook, p. 188)
As it happened, Jeffrey Hunter was unwilling to take part in further filming for the budget-saving remake of "The Cage" into the two-parter. (Star Trek: The Original Series Sketchbook, p. 188) Since he had turned down the prospect of "The Cage" becoming a movie, there was no chance he would cooperate to redo the pilot episode for televised Star Trek. (Inside Star Trek: The Real Story, paperback ed., p. 251) He was not only unavailable but also unaffordable for what amounted to a minor supporting role. (The Star Trek Compendium, 4th ed., p. 48) Director Marc Daniels established that the use of another actor, clad in disfiguring makeup, was how the creators of Star Trek therefore "handled the unavailability of Jeffrey Hunter." (Starlog #114)
Since the story imagined Pike as being confined to a 23rd century wheelchair and so permanently wounded as to be unable to speak, there was considerable latitude in recasting the role. (Star Trek: Aliens & Artifacts, p. 38) On the other hand, the two actors had to look somewhat alike. "Because Jeffrey Hunter wasn't available to play the crippled Capt. Pike, they had to find an actor who had the same facial structure and features," Sean Kenney pointed out. (Captain Pike Found Alive!, "Chapter Three: The Formula")
At first, John D.F. Black – who had recently departed from working on Star Trek from behind the scenes – was asked to represent the disabled Pike. John's wife, Mary Black (who had also been involved in the show from a production perspective), offered, "Dorothy [Fontana] called and said that they had this really fun idea. Because John's eyes matched the eyes of Jeffrey Hunter – and they couldn't find another actor who had the right eyes, and they were so sure John's did – they wanted him to come in and sit in the wheelchair and be Captain Pike, with lots of makeup on." John Black himself stated, "Both of us immediately had the attitude that that wouldn't be very much fun. I didn't hesitate at all in turning it down." The search for a suitable actor resumed. (These Are the Voyages: TOS Season One)
Sean Kenney was initially invited to try out for the role of Christopher Pike one evening right after making a one-off appearance in the Los Angeles stage show "The Deputy", on its opening night. As he removed his makeup backstage, a woman who turned out to be talent agent Mitzi MacGregor approached him and explained that she wanted him to meet with a man at Paramount called Gene Roddenberry, even though Kenney didn't yet know who he was. (Star Trek Magazine issue 175, p. 74; Captain Pike Found Alive!, "Chapter One: Lift Off!") The female agent arranged to schedule an appointment between the two men, on the condition that Kenney – who didn't have an agent at that point – signed with her. (Star Trek Magazine issue 175, p. 74) "My life completely changed that night," admitted Kenney. MacGregor agreed to ensure him a lead role on Star Trek, which was in the very early days of its creation at Paramount. (Captain Pike Found Alive!, "Chapter One: Lift Off!") Kenney eagerly accepted the arrangement proposed by MacGregor. (Star Trek Magazine issue 175, p. 74; Captain Pike Found Alive!, "Chapter One: Lift Off!") A profile picture of the actor was then promptly sent to Paramount. (Star Trek Magazine issue 175, p. 74)
One week after Sean Kenney first met Mitzi MacGregor and the image of him was dispatched, Kenney was interviewed by Joseph D'Agosta. (Star Trek Magazine issue 175, p. 74; Captain Pike Found Alive!, "Chapter Two: Ground Zero") D'Agosta recommended Kenney for the part of former starship captain Christopher Pike to Gene Roddenberry, with whom the actor met during the next week. (Captain Pike Found Alive!, "Chapter Two: Ground Zero") Years later, Kenney noted, "Gene Roddenberry himself interviewed me and OKed my casting in the part." (Starlog #113) The interview between them was in October 1966. "I felt like I was in 'alpha state' when I entered Desilu Studios [....] I was ushered into a small interviewing office and waited about ten minutes until Gene's secretary came by and stated, 'Mr. Roddenberry wants to interview you personally. Would you please step into his office?' [....] [After doing so] I sat facing his desk and noticed my casting photo was lying there. I waited only a few minutes and when he came in, I stood up and shook his hands." (Captain Pike Found Alive!, "Chapter Two: Ground Zero")
Gene Roddenberry began the discussion by speaking about the concept of Star Trek and the fact he had been searching for a lead actor to portray former starship captain Pike. "As I sat back down," continued Sean Kenney, "Gene got up and walked around me holding my casting photo in his hand." (Captain Pike Found Alive!, "Chapter Two: Ground Zero") Meanwhile, Roddenberry looked at Kenney from every side. The actor, though, was perplexed by this behavior. Roddenberry finally stopped circling Kenney and spoke. (Star Trek Magazine issue 175, p. 74) "Continuing, he said that the lead character, Pike, had been severely injured in a training accident and was unable to speak or move any body parts. Much of this role would come from emoting feeling through my eyes." Roddenberry outlined that the Star Trek creative team would age Kenney to look about eighty years old and that Pike would answer all questions with "yes" or "no" replies using a specially rigged light system. Kenney contemplated the seeming oddness of hiring a young actor to play an old man, a main part without any lines whatsoever. "I'm thinking, why me, why don't they just get an old guy?" the performer related. Roddenberry also voiced some direct questions. For instance, he enquired about whether Kenney would be able to handle intensive makeup for the part. (Captain Pike Found Alive!, "Chapter Two: Ground Zero") Another example was Roddenberry asking the interviewee if he had a problem with being confined within a tight area for long durations, to which Kenney declared he would be honored to play Pike. (Star Trek: Aliens & Artifacts, pp. 38 & 40) He believed the reasoning why Roddenberry "asked so many pointed questions when [Kenney] [...] grabbed the role of Captain Pike" was that Roddenberry wanted to ensure the actor could be trusted to know what he was doing and was going to deliver reliable performances as Pike, whatever happened on the set. (Captain Pike Found Alive!, "Chapter Twenty-One: Thespian Style")
According to a statement made by Gene Roddenberry in his interview with Sean Kenney, Jeffrey Hunter was unavailable because he was busy filming a movie in Spain. (Captain Pike Found Alive!, "Chapter Two: Ground Zero") Of course, Kenney owed much to Hunter for his inclusion in the "The Menagerie" two-parter. "I received the part of Captain Pike in the wheelchair because of my strong resemblance to Jeff Hunter," Kenney explained. (Starlog #113) He elaborated that his extreme physical similarity to Hunter was "to the point that nobody else in town resembled him as much as I did, though I was only 24 years old." (Star Trek Magazine issue 175, p. 75) The huge resemblance between the two performers was first noticed by Joseph D'Agosta. (Star Trek: Aliens & Artifacts, p. 38) Roddenberry noted aloud the strong degree of likeness between the actors, during Kenney's interview with him. (Captain Pike Found Alive!, "Chapter Two: Ground Zero") Kenney later hypothesized, "Maybe there is some ancestral DNA at play here. Jeff's real name was McKinney and most likely his family was from Ireland like my own." (Captain Pike Found Alive!, "Chapter Ten: Watch Your Back!")
Disfigured portrayal Edit
Despite the similarities between Sean Kenney and Jeffrey Hunter, the role of Christopher Pike required Kenney to undergo some drastic physical alterations. After-the-fact, Director Marc Daniels remarked, "It took a considerable amount of preparation and work to get it done properly." (Captains' Logs: The Unauthorized Complete Trek Voyages, p. 33)
During their initial meeting with one another, Gene Roddenberry informed Sean Kenney that the sides of his eyes would be taped down with extensive makeup, that his hair and eyebrows would be dyed stark white and that latex makeup would be extensively used on his face, with the same makeup reconstructed every day for at least a week. (Captain Pike Found Alive!, "Chapter Two: Ground Zero") In fact, Roddenberry even went as far as to explain that the latex makeup would so inhibit Kenney's movements he would likely end up having to eat through a straw. (Star Trek: Aliens & Artifacts, p. 38) When Roddenberry asked if Kenney had any problem with having his hair and eyebrows dyed white, the actor stated he had absolutely no such difficulty, very eager to accept the role. Towards the end of their first encounter, Roddenberry ascertained the actor had no allergies to latex makeup. (Captain Pike Found Alive!, "Chapter Two: Ground Zero")
Disfiguring Sean Kenney gave the makeup team a lot to do. "In retrospect, regarding the makeup, I have a few insights," detailed Kenney. "The two makeup geniuses who worked on my face, Fred Phillips [...] along with a young artist named Ray Sebastian, had their work cut out for themselves." (Captain Pike Found Alive!, "Chapter Three: The Formula") The creation of the makeup soon began. "When Fred Phillips, who was Paramount's head makeup man, had me come into the studio the week before," Kenney recounted, "we experimented with the different types of scars and aging processes available. I was then screentested for matching with Jeff's facial structure, makeup reality and hair color [....] Fred Phillips wanted to perfect the makeup by making a life mask of my face during the early stages of the experiments. They applied plaster of paris to my face with [...] two little rubber hoses in my nostrils for breathing." (Starlog #113) Phillips' interest in constructing a life mask was so he could use it as a makeup-testing device. (Star Trek: Aliens & Artifacts, p. 40)
Sean Kenney found the creation of a life mask of his own face was "a scary time" and highly claustrophobic. "And, I'm no claustrophobe!" he exclaimed. "My face hardened up like a rock and suddenly, I wondered whether I was going to breathe or not. It was quite an experience." (Starlog #113)
Meanwhile, hairstylist Virginia Darcy commenced work on Sean Kenney's hair. Gene Roddenberry wanted it white and brittle, not merely streaked with temporary makeup, but dyed so white it made the entire character seem damaged as well as aged. After Darcy finished, she and Roddenberry walked Kenney to the set for testing his hair under the studio lights. The actor's hair was so bright, it was off the color band and consequently made the television signal almost crackle. (Star Trek: Aliens & Artifacts, p. 40) "Gene felt the first screen test showed my hair to be too white looking on camera," he recalled. "They sent me back to the Paramount hairdresser who agreed something was amiss. So she dyed my hair to a light blonde color." (Captain Pike Found Alive!, "Chapter Three: The Formula") The synthetic dulling of Kenney's hair was done with a beige powder. (Starlog #113) Darcy combined this with a hair preparation and combed the resulting mix through Kenney's hair, before allowing it to dry. Afterwards, the hair color passed the color registration assessment, then Kenney was moved onto another stage of makeup tests. (Star Trek: Aliens & Artifacts, p. 40) In hindsight, he decided he "wasn't too happy about" the dying of his hair. (Starlog #113)
Two days before filming, Fred Phillips and Ray Sebastian initiated camera tests on the makeup layouts they'd devised using Sean Kenney's life mask. Applying the designs for real and testing them on camera depended on a six-and-a-half-hour application procedure. Sebastian, instead of Phillips, was in charge of applying the makeup and was assisted by Fred Obringer. The makeup was arranged directly on Kenney's own skin, rather than using latex appliances. The first step of the technique was applying spirit gum all over the actor's face to produce a tacky surface on the skin, which subsequently was covered with cotton. The excess cotton was removed. Then, liquid latex was stippled onto various parts of Kenney's face while the skin was stretched tightly. Owing to the fact they were working under tight time constraints throughout the process, the makeup artists used hair dryers to quicken the drying time, opting not to wait for the latex to dry naturally. They next applied a second coat of latex. (Star Trek: Aliens & Artifacts, p. 40)
Representing the scar on the right side of Pike's head was originally very difficult, when the Sean Kenney mask was under development. (Star Trek: Aliens & Artifacts, p. 40) After the makeup appliances began to melt a lot in rehearsals, a piece of fabric was designed to be incorporated into the makeup. Recalling how this came to be, Kenney offered, "One day, they were so frustrated with the melting of the horrific scar on the side of my face that Ray [Sebastian] came up with an ingenious solution. He reached down and cut out a piece of his own Levis he was wearing, made it into the shape of the scar, then taped it to the side of my face, creating an ideal radiation burn scar that would not melt or appear to be healing." (Captain Pike Found Alive!, "Chapter Three: The Formula") After the material was applied, a base color of Rubber Mask Greasepaint was put on, covering nearly all of Kenney's face. The only exception was the artificial scar, which was next colored with a blueish-purple center and a deep red outer area to make it seem constantly painful. The entire makeup was lastly set with a translucent face powder. (Star Trek: Aliens & Artifacts, p. 40)
The makeup designers gave Pike's eye special attention because, amid their tests, they realized Pike would appear more sympathetic if he had a drooping eyelid. Hence, Ray Sebastian pulled down the outer edge of Sean Kenney's eyelid using clear medical tape. (Star Trek: Aliens & Artifacts, p. 40) Tying the corners of the actor's eyes down with scotch mending tape had the added effect of giving him an aged appearance. (Starlog #113)
The development time for the Pike makeup was at least twenty hours. (Captain Pike Found Alive!, "gallery pix") Daily, it took the makeup artists nearly five hours to apply. (Starlog #113) "Every day, they would have to start from scratch applying the same makeup," Sean Kenney reported, "and placing that valuable piece of jean material in the correct spot [....] The makeup job on the first day took almost five hours to construct while on the last day they had it down to two and a half hours." (Captain Pike Found Alive!, "Chapter Three: The Formula") As a result of the multiple reapplications that were needed each time over the course of five production days, Kenney found the proceedings painstaking and tedious. (Star Trek: Aliens & Artifacts, p. 40) Because the appliances started to often melt in rehearsals, his time in front of the camera was extremely limited. (Captain Pike Found Alive!, "Chapter Three: The Formula") He practically lived in the makeup room, spending ten to twelve hours there each day of the shoot. (Star Trek: Aliens & Artifacts, p. 40)
Due to Sean Kenney's long hours in makeup, the shooting company did not become familiar with the appearance of the actor under all those appliances. "I'd come in before everyone to get the make-up on and left after everyone because I had to get the make-up off," Kenney recollected. "It was the weirdest feeling, because no one ever saw me." (Star Trek Magazine issue 175, p. 75) Moreover, Kenney was rendered unable to converse with any of the cast and crew due to the restrictive makeup. (These Are the Voyages: TOS Season One; Captain Pike Found Alive!, "Chapter Two: Ground Zero") Looking back, he said, "With the Captain Pike makeup limiting my socializing, I didn't linger on the set after we wrapped for the day. I would quickly remove my [...] latex mask [....] Through that whole eight day shoot, I walked and talked to everyone outside the studio as a perfect looking albino gent." (Captain Pike Found Alive!, "Chapter Three: The Formula") Kenney's predicament during the shoot elicited pity from fellow actor Malachi Throne, who mentioned, "Poor Sean – Sean was stuck in the box." (These Are the Voyages: TOS Season One)
Sean Kenney once described his latex mask as "dreaded." (Captain Pike Found Alive!, "Chapter Three: The Formula") "The appliances were very tight around the face," he expressed. "Eating was very difficult [due to the heavy makeup restrictions] so my lunches were taken through a straw, consisting of soups and mush, so to speak." (Starlog #113) Kenney elaborated, "On the set, I actually felt like I was being starved." (Captain Pike Found Alive!, "Chapter Two: Ground Zero")
For his portrayal of Christopher Pike, Sean Kenney concentrated much of his attention on his eyes. "Most of the feeling had to come through my eyes," he stated, "especially due to the fact that they would tie the corners of my eyes down with scotch mending tape." (Starlog #113) The actor clarified, "It was an immense acting challenge, trying to say so much only through my eyes."
For one specific scene, Sean Kenney thought about his father having died when he had been eight years old. "That's where the tears came from in my big scene," he reflected. "I remember everyone saying, 'OK, we got it.'" (Star Trek Magazine issue 175, p. 75)
Towards the end of filming the scenes involving the crippled Christopher Pike, an issue arose concerning the scrap of denim used as the character's scar. Sean Kenney remembered, "About the eighth day into the shoot, Ray [Sebastian] was so tired he placed the scar on the wrong side of my face. When I looked in the mirror, I knew something was wrong and we both cracked up, realizing exhaustion had finally taken its toll." (Captain Pike Found Alive!, "Chapter Three: The Formula")
Reception and aftermath Edit
First portrayal Edit
Originally, NBC, Herb Solow, Gene Roddenberry and Robert Butler were all delighted they were able to secure Jeffrey Hunter for the part of Christopher Pike in "The Cage". (Inside Star Trek: The Real Story, paperback ed., p. 36)
Robert Butler was left with the feeling Jeffrey Hunter's stint as Christopher Pike was not wholly satisfying. "I thought he was probably a good, chiseled hero for this type of part," Butler critiqued about Hunter. "He was an extremely pleasant, centered guy, and maybe decent and nice to a fault.... I remember thinking, 'God, he's handsome,' and this was sadly the opinion of him at the time. When one is trying to bring reality into an unreal situation, that usually isn't a wise thing to do – to hire a somewhat perfect looking actor. You should find someone who seems more natural and more 'real.'" (These Are the Voyages: TOS Season One, "Chapter Three: Designing Star Trek") Butler also stated about Hunter, "I [...] found him to be a real cooperative good guy. He was a little heroic and a little stiff, and I tried to modify that a little bit, and maybe I did and maybe I didn't." (Star Trek Monthly issue 6, pp. 53-54)
According to Joseph D'Agosta and Robert Justman, the executives at NBC opted for William Shatner as James T. Kirk rather than Jeffrey Hunter as Christopher Pike because they were disappointed with Hunter's depiction of Pike. (Cinefantastique, Vol. 27, No. 11/12, p. 56 Captains' Logs: The Unauthorized Complete Trek Voyages, p. 14) "The network seemed to feel that Jeff Hunter was rather woolen," remembered Justman. (Captains' Logs: The Unauthorized Complete Trek Voyages, p. 14) D'Agosta concurred, "When they saw the pilot, they didn't like Jeffrey Hunter. They'd pick up Star Trek based on recasting him." (Cinefantastique, Vol. 27, No. 11/12, p. 56) In accordance with these opinions, the Press-TV Radio reported in 1967 that Hunter was let go from Star Trek because "he didn't cut the meteoric mustard as the Captain." (Star Trek Magazine issue 166, p. 55) However, in the book Inside Star Trek: The Real Story (paperback ed., p. 60) Herb Solow recorded that, upon specifying their wants and desires for the second Star Trek pilot, NBC proclaimed, "Jeffrey Hunter was okay, and if you want to use him again, that's fine with us." In the book Star Trek Memories (paperback ed., p. 70), Shatner referred to Hunter as "one of the few cast members [from 'The Cage' who was] spared the wrath of the network."
Robert Justman thought Jeffrey Hunter lacked a sense of energy in his portrayal of the captain, whereas William Shatner provided the much-needed quota of energy. (Inside Star Trek: The Real Story, paperback ed., pp. 71-72) Justman also claimed he and Roddenberry felt strongly that Hunter was a less "accomplished" actor than Shatner, with less "dimension" and unable to exhibit as varied an emotional range as Shatner could. (These Are the Voyages: TOS Season One, "Chapter Five: Double or Nothing: A Second Pilot"; Captains' Logs: The Unauthorized Complete Trek Voyages, p. 14) Joseph D'Agosta agreed with this notion. (These Are the Voyages: TOS Season One, "Chapter Five: Double or Nothing: A Second Pilot") However, Roddenberry himself speculated about Hunter, "He would have made a grand captain." (Captains' Logs: The Unauthorized Complete Trek Voyages, p. 14) Likewise, writer D.C. Fontana once commented that, in her view, Hunter regularly appearing as Pike would have resulted in "a good captain," and also said, "He wouldn't have been Captain Kirk; his approach would have been very different, but I think he would have been perfectly fine." (Star Trek Magazine issue 128, p. 45)
Actor Mark Lenard once voiced an alternative opinion, commenting, "Using a straighter fellow like the original choice, the character would have been stiffer than [William] Shatner with less of a personality. I don't think it would have worked as well with Jeffrey Hunter in the lead." (Cinefantastique, Vol. 27, No. 11/12, p. 77) Leonard Nimoy has similarly expressed that he believes Pike's relationship with Nimoy's own character of Spock would not have been anywhere near as successful as that between Kirk and Spock. "Hunter was more reticent and less dramatic in his acting choices," Nimoy criticized, "leaving Spock's maneuvering space less clearly defined." (Starlog #63)
By 2009, Jeffrey Hunter's performance as Captain Pike had become highly popular. Bruce Greenwood, who played the alternate reality version of Christopher Pike, referred to Hunter as having a "legion of fans he had from creating that role."  "People feel so strongly about every tiny little aspect of it," Greenwood stated. (Star Trek Magazine Souvenir Special, p. 34) On the other hand, Hunter's portrayal of Pike is less well known than William Shatner's depictions of Kirk and Leonard Nimoy's take on Spock, a situation which Greenwood pointed out. (Star Trek Magazine issue 175, p. 16)
In the critical review reference book Trek Navigator: The Ultimate Guide to the Entire Trek Saga (pp. 144, 29 & 30), Mark A. Altman and Edward Gross make remarks on Jeffrey Hunter's characterization of Captain Pike. Altman refers to it as "a powerful performance" and reckons of Hunter, "Although he probably wouldn't have proved Shatner's equal in a continuing series, he shines in his sole Star Trek outing." Gross opines, "Jeffrey Hunter is a bit stiff as Captain Pike, but he's an effective enough progenitor of William Shatner's James T. Kirk."
British writer Paul Cornell found Jeffrey Hunter in the role of Captain Pike particularly memorable and a performance "no one is ever likely to forget." (Star Trek Monthly issue 19, p. 75) Similarly, British journalist and author Andy Lane rhetorically asked, "Who can resist speculating on an entire parallel Star Trek history where Christopher Pike is captain of the U.S.S. Enterprise?" (Star Trek Monthly issue 28, p. 40) American writer Stuart Moore noticed a particularly curious element of the character, commenting, "Pike [...] had an interesting set of relationships with the women under his command." (Star Trek Magazine issue 154, p. 9)
Michael Okuda thought recasting the character of Christopher Pike for the "The Menagerie" two-parter, due to the unavailability of Jeffrey Hunter, worked "perfectly" and was done in an exceedingly clever fashion. Concerning how Sean Kenney adopted the role of Pike, Okuda supposed, "This is probably his most famous role, on Star Trek at least." ("The Menagerie, Part I" Starfleet Access, TOS Season 1 Blu-ray)
In the two-parter, Christopher Pike is highlighted in the credits. "I guess they figured top feature credit," Sean Kenney speculated, "was the least they could do to compensate all the restructuring to my anatomy and reward my patience." He revealed, "I had no misgivings about not being recognized. It was a thrill to be in the show [....] All in all, I felt proud of my efforts." (Starlog #113) However, he also conceded, "I'm not tooting my own horn I hope, I just happened to be in the right place at the right time for their sake and for mine." (Captain Pike Found Alive!, "Chapter Three: The Formula")
Sean Kenney's appearances as Pike were highly successful with Marc Daniels, who directed Kenney in the "The Menagerie" two-parter, as well as with the creative staff at large. Daniels characterized the method in which they dealt with Jeffrey Hunter's absence as "a neat way out if it." Additionally, the director commented, "We were all satisfied by the results." (Captains' Logs: The Unauthorized Complete Trek Voyages, p. 33)
Gene Roddenberry also approved of Sean Kenney's performances as Pike. Said the actor, "On the last day of the shoot Gene came up to me and congratulated me for my terrific 'emoting job' [....] He said that I had put up with a lot and he wanted to reward my tenacity and good spirit. I certainly agreed with his point." (Captain Pike Found Alive!, "Chapter Three: The Formula")
One reason why Sean Kenney concurred with the idea he had gone through a lot was because he was still suffering hair loss. He specified, "My hair was falling out from the two dye jobs they'd done on me [....] After the show wrapped [the Paramount hairdresser] [...] had to dye my hair back to its original dark brown color (a third dye job within a month). My hair was coming out in large clumps. I remember she used a product called Fermadil from Austria (placenta from unborn sheep), and rolled it into my scalp and it stopped the hair loss." (Captain Pike Found Alive!, "Chapter Three: The Formula")
After playing the deformed Christopher Pike, Sean Kenney sent a photograph of himself in the part to Fred Phillips. On it, the performer had written a message including the statement, "Thank you for your wonderful 'face lift'." (Star Trek: The Original Series Sketchbook, p. 188) The photo was from the series of screen tests conducted while the Pike makeup had been in development. The particular image Kenney used showed the makeup in its "final" form. (Captain Pike Found Alive!, "gallery pix")
In 1966, a TV Times Preview – misunderstanding that the wheelchair-bound Pike was Jeffrey Hunter under heavy makeup – was amazed by the performance. The publication praised Hunter for doing "excellent work" in the part. (Star Trek Magazine issue 166, p. 55)
The representations of Christopher Pike in "The Menagerie" inspired curiosity in J.K. Woodward, who (decades later) collaborated with Stuart Moore on the comic Captain's Log: Pike. Woodward's interest in Pike was piqued when he saw "The Menagerie" at age seven. He related, "I remember thinking at the time, 'What's that guy's story? How do you get from being like Captain Kirk to being stuck in that chair?'" (Star Trek Magazine issue 154, p. 9)
Sean Kenney's stint of playing Christopher Pike was instrumental in landing him the role of Lieutenant DePaul, the casting of which was one way Gene Roddenberry attempted to reward Kenney for the job he had done as Pike. While Kenney was playing DePaul in "Arena", however, very few people really knew he had played the earlier part. When McCoy actor DeForest Kelley became curious how such a young actor could have been cast as DePaul, it was one of the men assigned to the makeup department who revealed Kenney's previous role, to which Kelley either responded, "You were Pike? Damn, you're so young," or "You played Pike? You're so damn young." (Captain Pike Found Alive!, "Chapter Three: The Formula"; Star Trek Magazine issue 175, p. 75)
According to the unofficial reference book The Trek 25th Anniversary Celebration (p. 51), Pike was to have been mentioned in the original version of the episode "Bem", undeveloped for TOS. The book claims that Kirk was to have cited Pike's reports, reminding Spock that, according to those reports, he (i.e. Spock) had trouble adjusting.
One night after ten years had elapsed since his appearances on Star Trek, Sean Kenney was visiting Chuck Norris' wife's restaurant in Marina Del Ray when he had an encounter with Jeffrey Hunter's wife, Emily McLaughlin. "As I approached her table, her face nearly turned white," Kenney related. "I did resemble her late husband quite a bit and by now I was in my late thirties and more mature looking than when I played Pike. As I sat, I calmed her nerves and relayed the story of how Gene Roddenberry had hand-picked me to play Pike because Jeff was not available. She kept shaking her head at the strong resemblance [....] I often wish that I had met Jeff at some point, while he was still alive." (Captain Pike Found Alive!, "Chapter Ten: Watch Your Back!")
Andy Lane noted that Pike's disfigured face is "not unlike that of the Phantom of the Opera." Lane went on to comment, "The result on the audience is horror tinged with disquiet [....] We are only too aware that disease or accident might one day result in us wearing the same face." (Star Trek Monthly issue 9, p. 15)
In Cinefantastique (Vol. 22, No. 3, p. 27), the mistake of crediting Jeffrey Hunter with the role of the disfigured Pike was made by critic Thomas Doherty. He also likened the character's fate, as established at the end of "The Menagerie, Part II", to the experience of watching science fiction fantasy. He concluded, "Like the viewer, locked in a chair, Pike is free to roam the galaxy in his mind."
Christopher Pike was an influence on one particular military protocol, which Sean Kenney learned when two F-16 pilots approached him. One of the pilots, who was extremely military-looking, asked Kenney if he was aware the Air Force uses "a Captain Pike code" when flying over hostile territory in Iraq. Kenney was highly surprised and at first questioned whether the pilot was joking. (; Star Trek Magazine issue 175, p. 73) "He said, 'No. When we break radio silence we say, "Is that a one-beep or two-beep Roger?" Only a person who is a Trekker would know that code,'" Kenney relayed. (Star Trek Magazine issue 175, p. 73) He was still stunned by the news. "I thought that's hilarious," he expressed, "that now I'm a code in Iraq for the pilots there." 
Shortly before his death in 2008, a wheelchair-bound Robert Justman introduced himself to Sean Kenney at an annual Star Trek convention in Las Vegas and thanked him personally for having played Pike. "He told me," relayed Kenney, "that if Gene and he hadn't found me for the role of Pike they were in big trouble." (Captain Pike Found Alive!, "Chapter Three: The Formula")
Sean Kenney was proud of the ways in which his representation of Captain Pike inspired physically disabled people, in general. When interviewed in 2010, he mused, "Here was a guy, Captain Pike, who was almost the first physically challenged person anyone saw on TV in a major part [....] I meet people now [in wheelchairs] who roll up to me and say, 'When I saw that show I thought, what if I lost my voice? I've only lost my legs.'" (These Are the Voyages: TOS Season One; )
At a San Francisco signing show called Wondercon in November 2012, Christian Slater directly thanked Sean Kenney for, in Kenney's words, "the Pike inspiration." (Captain Pike Found Alive!, "Chapter Twenty-Two: Looking for a Galaxy... Try Ours!")
In 2013, Sean Kenney referenced Pike in the title of his autobiography, Captain Pike Found Alive! He ended the book by addressing Star Trek fans with the statement, "I [...] want you to remember what Captain Pike would have wanted to say to you as you look toward the heavens... 'Your being here does matter.'" (Captain Pike Found Alive!, "Chapter Twenty-Six: The Future")
Bruce Greenwood learned about the popularity of the Pike character, especially Jeffrey Hunter's presentment of it, after he received the task of adopting the alternate reality variant.  "Regardless of what I choose to do, I thought I'd better know what other people's frame of reference is," he remembered. (Star Trek Magazine Souvenir Special, p. 34) He noticed the original Pike was highly ambivalent and torn about remaining with Starfleet, whereas these qualities seem to be essentially reversed in the character's alternate reality counterpart. (Star Trek Magazine issue 175, p. 16) Greenwood pointed out, "The central dilemma for Jeffrey Hunter is not the central dilemma for my Pike."  The actor suggested, "They are almost opposites [....] Yet you can look at it as though they are two sides of the same coin, because of the parallel universe." Owing to the relative obscurity of Hunter's portrayal of Pike (compared to William Shatner's and Leonard Nimoy's depictions of Kirk and Spock respectively), Greenwood admitted feeling no need to infuse any of Hunter's performance style in the way he re-enacted the character, being unsure if such likenesses would actually be apparent. As a result, only one unmistakable "tip of the hat" to televised Pike was included in the alternate reality, which was that Pike ends up in a wheelchair at the end of the film Star Trek. (Star Trek Magazine issue 175, p. 16) Despite this, Sean Kenney reckoned, "I think Bruce was inspired by Jeffrey Hunter's work because, obviously, I played the crippled Pike." He also announced, "If J.J. Abrams ever goes into looking for the crippled Pike, I'd love to do it again." 
Outside of the canon information derived from Christopher Pike's on-screen appearances, Diane Carey's Final Frontier novel lists his full name as "Christopher Richard Pike." His adventures as captain of the Enterprise were the center of Marvel's Star Trek: Early Voyages comic book series, establishing his father as retired Admiral Josh Pike. Pike was also featured in a handful of novels and comics, some of them depicting his life after being crippled and left on Talos IV, some of them depicting his earlier adventures.
The Pocket novel Vulcan's Glory by TOS script writer D.C. Fontana states that Pike previously commanded the starship USS Yorktown, a reference to the original name intended to be given to the Enterprise. Some stories have also said that Pike served as the executive officer on board the Enterprise under Captain Robert T. April.
Pike wearing one rank stripe as captain, while James T. Kirk wore two on the same style of uniform, gives rise to the theory that, during "The Cage", Pike was actually a commander (or even a lieutenant) in rank, and was addressed as captain by way of his position on the ship rather than his actual rank. (citation needed • edit) However, most texts and background information simply refer to Pike as a Starfleet captain with this also assumed as his actual rank.
In the Star Trek novel Enterprise: The First Adventure, Pike is promoted to commodore upon relinquishing command of the Enterprise. This could indicate that "fleet captain" was considered a position and not a rank.
Pike is also the main focus of the non-canon novel Burning Dreams, which gives a detailed account of his life and career, as well as The Captain's Table #6: Where Sea Meets Sky. Burning Dreams establishes that, after the incident on Talos IV, Pike spent much of the rest of his career wondering if his life and everything that he was experiencing in life was an illusion and if he was still in the cell on Talos IV.
In the Star Trek: Deep Space Nine novel Unity, Ezri Dax said that Pike was part of the joint Starfleet-Trill mission where the neural parasite was first discovered. At that time, Pike was a fleet captain.
According to his alternate counterpart's biography on the Star Trek movie app, Christopher Pike was born in 2205 to Charles and Willa Pike. He spent part of his childhood living on the planet Elysium. He enrolled in Starfleet in 2223 and was commissioned as an officer in 2227.