In 2154, Ensign Travis Mayweather and Lieutenant Malcolm Reed played chess while inhabited by Organians. Lieutenant Reed told Ensign Mayweather that he was the best player of chess aboard the NX-class starship Enterprise. (ENT: "Observer Effect")
By 2264, a three-dimensional variant had been devised and was available to the crew of the Constitution-class USS Enterprise. James T. Kirk and Spock frequently enjoyed playing it together. (TOS: "Where No Man Has Gone Before", "Charlie X", "Court Martial", "By Any Other Name", "Whom Gods Destroy")
Despite the game's inherent complexity, some individuals have been dismissive of it. When Harry Kim referred to Kal-toh as "Vulcan chess", Tuvok claimed that "Kal-toh is to chess as chess is to tic-tac-toe". (VOY: "Alter Ego")
The chess nomenclature used for the computer's lines in "Evolution", English Descriptive Notation, has become highly uncommon in the early 21st century, in favor of the far more efficient Algebraic Notation method developed during the early decades of the 20th century.
An unfilmed line from TNG: "Coming of Age" suggests that the Mordock Strategy was a strategy in Benzite Chess. The script of "Empok Nor" described the Cardassian game of Kotra as being "a cross between chess and Stratego".
Three chess sets "like the one featured in the Star Trek: Enterprise episode "Observer Effect"" were sold during the It's A Wrap! sale and auction on ebay, and two three-dimensional chess sets were sold in the Christie's 40 Years sale.