Chancellor was a title used by some nation-states on Earth and elsewhere instead of the more common "Prime Minister" to mean the official Head of government. Some planetary governments were also headed by Chancellors.
- Adolf Hitler was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 until 1945.
- Kultarey was Chancellor of one country on the Gosis' species homeworld in 2152. (ENT: "The Communicator")
Planetary governments lead by Chancellors included:
- Andoria (ENT: "The Aenar")
- Qo'noS (Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country)
- Malcor III (TNG: "First Contact")
The 2260s planetary government of Ekos also seemed to have been run by a Chancellor prior to John Gill's combining this office and that of President into the dangerously centralized "Führer". Gill's headquarters, even after the installation of his Party's SS science labs and holding cells, were still referred to as the Ekosian Chancellery. (TOS: "Patterns of Force")
Gill's model, Adolf Hitler's Nazi state, was effected by a 1934 referendum as to whether Chancellor Hitler himself might take over the role of the recently deceased President, concurrently with his own governmental duties. Ninety percent of the voting public approved of the move.