The Cerberus system was an inhabited system. A colony was established on Cerberus by the United Federation of Planets prior to 2259. Cerberus II had a native population.
Carter Winston helped save the Federation citizens of Cerebus colony, including Joanna McCoy, from a supply shortage. (TAS: "The Survivor")
In the mid-24th century, Mark Jameson visited Cerberus II on several diplomatic missions for treaty negotiations. (TNG: "Too Short a Season")