(covers information from several alternate timelines)
The Beta Quadrant was the common designation for one-quarter of the Milky Way Galaxy. It was adjacent to the Alpha and Delta Quadrants. One-quarter of the galactic core was located in this quadrant. (Star Trek: Voyager, Season 7 production art ; Star Trek Into Darkness, display graphics)
Qo'noS, the Klingon homeworld, was located in the Beta Quadrant. (Star Trek Into Darkness, display graphic) The Klingon Empire and the Romulan Star Empire claimed territory in the Beta Quadrant in the 24th century. (Star Trek: Insurrection, display graphic)
In 2293, the starship USS Excelsior, commanded by Captain Hikaru Sulu, completed a three-year exploratory voyage in the Beta Quadrant which included cataloging gaseous anomalies. (Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country)
In 2363, Captain Lisa Cusak and the crew of the USS Olympia began a seven-year exploration voyage in the Beta Quadrant. Following this mission, the Olympia crashed on a planet in the Rutharian sector en route back to Federation space. While escorting a convoy to the Vegan system in 2374, the crew of the USS Defiant made contact with Cusak in 2371 via a temporal anomaly. (DS9: "The Sound of Her Voice")
In an alternate timeline, the USS Voyager used a quantum slipstream drive to cross the Delta and Beta Quadrants, before crashing on an Class L planet in the Takara sector, a few parsecs short of reaching the Alpha Quadrant. Also in this timeline, Starfleet Intelligence had salvaged a Borg temporal transmitter from the debris of a Borg cube in the Beta Quadrant. (VOY: "Timeless")
When members of the Hierarchy captured Captain Janeway and forced The Doctor to obtain Voyager's warp core for them, he impersonated Janeway and told Commander Chakotay a cover story involving a fictitious R'Kaal Imperium which supposedly controlled "thousands of parsecs from here to the edge of the Beta Quadrant." (VOY: "Renaissance Man")
Captain Riker - holoprogram Edit
In 2367, while exploring a cavern on Alpha Onias III, Commander William T. Riker was rendered unconscious by gases. While unconscious, neural scanners scanned Commander Riker's brain. The scanners used elements of Riker's reality and constructed a holoprogram with those elements interspersed throughout, so that it felt real to him. What Riker wanted, the scanners made possible.
In one of these simulations, the Axanar hosted a conference on Beta Quadrant exploration and Federation security that was held at the Deneva Special Congress on Interstellar Affairs. On stardate 52384, Captain Riker, the commanding officer of the USS Enterprise-D, was selected for recognition as the special Federation representative to this conference. In 2283, the quadrant was mentioned in Riker's service record that was on display in his quarters on the Enterprise-D. (TNG: "Future Imperfect", okudagram)
For the remastered episode of "Future Imperfect", the original text of Riker's service record was replaced.
The Fen Domar, with whom Voyager was engaged in battle in an alternate timeline, may very likely be a Beta Quadrant civilization. This is based on the ships close proximity to the quadrant's border in "Endgame" and Admiral Kathryn Janeway's comments that the ship would have encountered them just a few years after the events of that episode.
According to Star Trek Encyclopedia, Earth marks the border between Alpha and Beta Quadrants. This notion seems to be supported by a graphic from "Year of Hell, Part I" and the display graphic on the PADD from Star Trek: Insurrection.  Dialogue in Star Trek: Voyager and Star Trek: Deep Space Nine however firmly establish that Earth is located on the Alpha Quadrant side of the border. According to Star Trek Encyclopedia, Federation, Klingon, and Romulan territories are situated both in the Alpha and Beta Quadrants. Again, in dialogue from Star Trek: Voyager and Star Trek: Deep Space Nine all three powers and governments in their vicinities have been exclusively referred to as Alpha Quadrant powers. A star chart graphic used in Star Trek Into Darkness had the label Alpha Quadrant near Sector 01 (Level 3-B). 
According to Star Trek: Star Charts, the Beta Quadrant was home to the Vulcans, Andorians, Orions, Bolians, Son'a, Risians, Organians, Coridan, Axanar, Nausicaans, Suliban, Gorn and a many other alien races. According to the book, some of the early voyages of the Enterprise NX-01 took place in the Beta Quadrant with only a few excursions into the Alpha Quadrant.