The Barkonians were a pre-industrial society from Barkon IV. Barkonians were humanoid in appearance, with a distinctive patterned forehead. Their level of technological development is similar to Earth's during the Renaissance period. The Barkonians (or Talur at least) believe in an Aristotlean four-element theory of physical matter.
In 2370, a Federation probe crash-landed on the planet, causing some Barkonians to suffer the effects of radiation poisoning. The Barkonians also had their First Contact with alien life, when Lieutenant Commander Data was dispatched to retrieve and salvage the probe's components. Damaged by the probe, Data lost his memory, and spent several weeks living among the Barkonians. (TNG: "Thine Own Self")