Anarchy, literally a system without leaders, was the absence of political governance. An advocate of anarchy was called an anarchist. While social theories of anarchy held that it could result in societal harmony, the term was often used as a slang meaning disordered social chaos.
It is unknown if this was meant to imply that they were chaotic or if they had a societal harmony, which in this case would have to be overlapped with a competitive warrior culture where killing was commonplace. The rejection of all authority forms suggests anarchy as a societal choise though, as anarchy as a chaotic state tends to still have ad-hoc power power structures, for example in gang hierarchies.
In 2368 a Borg cube traveling through the Nekrit Expanse failed, and a number of survivors managed to transport to a nearby planet. They started regaining their memories, and old conflicts between the many species represented flared up again. The situation got out of hand, until those opposed to the conflict described it as anarchy. (VOY: "Unity")
Although never stated as such, the failed Federationcolony of Turkana IV could be considered to exist in a state of anarchy following its descent into civil war and lawlessness beginning in the 2330s.)
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