Aldebaran was the primary for the Aldebaran planetary system. This system was located in the Alpha Quadrant. There was a planet, Aldebaran III, that was suitable for colonization by humanoid life-forms. In the mid-23rd century, the Federation established an outpost on this planet. Its location in the Milky Way Galaxy was depicted on a Federation star chart in 2293.(Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country)
The Aldebaran mud leech, the Aldebaran serpent, Aldebaran whiskey, and the Aldebaran shellmouth originate from this system. It was the location of the Aldebaran Music Academy. (ENT: "Anomaly"; TOS: "Amok Time"; TNG: "Hide and Q", "Relics"; DS9: "Prophet Motive", "Explorers", "Distant Voices", "Shadowplay")
"The Explored Galaxy"
On the chart, Aldebaran was misspelled as Aldeberan. "The Explored Galaxy" was a map of charted space in the Alpha Quadrant. Aldebaran was located between the Tholian Assembly and Romulus. Both locations were identified in DS9: "The Search, Part II", "Call to Arms" as being located in this quadrant. This star chart was also seen in several Star Trek: The Next Generation and Star Trek: Deep Space Nine episodes set in the 24th century, from the year 2364 to 2370. These were: TNG: "Conspiracy", "The Measure Of A Man", "The Emissary", "The Mind's Eye", "The Game" and DS9: "In the Hands of the Prophets", "Cardassians".
Aldebaran (Alpha Tauri): This was a quadrinary star system. Aldebaran A was a K-class star with a magnitude of -1, which was a hundred times brighter than Sol. Aldebaran B and Aldebaran C were K-class stars. Aldebaran D was a M-class star. (pg. 60)