In the mid-24th century, a hospital on this world permitted its medical staff to perform DNA resequencing, a type of genetic engineering, on their patients. This medical procedure was considered illegal in the Federation.
In 2348, seven-year-old Julian Bashir was taken by his parents, Richard and Amsha Bashir, to Adigeon Prime to undergo accelerated critical neural pathway formation. There, the young Bashir's brain was genetically modified, leading to mental and well as physical enhancement. (DS9: "Doctor Bashir, I Presume")
The Star Trek: Enterprise novel, The Good That Men Do depicted a visit to Adigeon Prime by Earth Starfleet Commander Charles Tucker in order to undergo surgical alteration. In the novel, the planet was neutral and home to the Adigeons, an avian culture adept at various plastic surgeries and reconstructions. It was said to be located near Romulan territory.