The 1990s were described by Spock as a "strange, violent time" in the history of Earth. Along with bacteriological warfare experiments, genetic engineering brought forth the Augments. (TOS: "Space Seed", "The Omega Glory") After the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the end of the Earth Cold War, the Human "supermen" seized control of large portions of the planet. The devastating Eugenics Wars among those leaders found them defeated and exiled.
In the fields of science, cryonics became popular on Earth and cryonics satellites were launched. Khan Noonien Singh with his followers were exiled in a sleeper ship. Human scientists discovered evidence of past life on Mars and NASA launched the Sojourner, the first vehicle to roam the planet. Chronowerx Industries developed computer technology.
- During the 1990s, Earth conducted several bacteriological warfare experiments. According to Dr. McCoy, one of their noted experiments produced an infection which resembles those found on the USS Enterprise crewmembers who visited Omega IV. (TOS: "The Omega Glory")