|Mass:||5.974 * 1024 kg|
|Surface Gravity:||9.81 m/sec2|
|Distance from Primary:||1 AU|
|Surface Temperature:||+15º Celsius (average)|
|Rotational Period:||23 hours, 56 minutes|
|Orbital Period:||365.25 days (1.0 years)|
Earth is the third planet of the Sol system, the homeworld of Humanity, and the location of the office of the President of the United Federation of Planets. Earth is also the Federation's de facto capital world.
- Sol III
- Terra (in the mirror universe, Earth was sometimes referred to as Terra)
- Luna (the Moon)
The planet Earth was formed approximately 4.5 billion years ago, during the formation of the Sol system.
At least one, and possibly two, sentient life forms evolved on Earth: Humans and Voth. According to Q, life evolved on Earth from a group of amino acids combining to form the first proteins approximately 3.5 billion years ago, "give or take an eon or two". This first life on the planet would develop into, among other things, the Human species. (TNG: "All Good Things...") The Distant Origin theory postulated by Voth scientist Forra Gegen suggested that his species also originated on Earth, long before the evolution of the Human race. According to this theory, the Voth abandoned Earth prior to the mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous period. (VOY: "Distant Origin")
- It is also possible that the genetic similarities between Humans and Voth were a result of the DNA seeding performed by the ancient humanoid race from TNG: "The Chase".
During its long history the existence of the planet has been threatened by both natural disasters and actions of alien intelligences. In 2153, Earth was pre-emptively attacked by the Xindi as a test of and in preparation for use of the Xindi superweapon to obliterate the planet. (ENT: "The Expanse") The superweapon was destroyed the following year by Captain Jonathan Archer of the Enterprise NX before it could be used on Earth. (ENT: "Zero Hour")
- In an alternate timeline where Jonathan Archer's brain was infected by interspatial parasites, Earth was destroyed by the Xindi superweapon in 2154. (ENT: "Twilight")
Earth's biosphere has also been threatened during that time by alien influences. In 2273 a massive machine lifeform called V'Ger threatened to destroy all biological life on Earth if its demands were not met. The attack was narrowly averted by the USS Enterprise. (Star Trek: The Motion Picture) In 2286, an alien probe of unknown origin wreaked ecological havoc while trying to contact an extinct species of Humpback whale by transmiting massive amounts of energy into Earth's oceans. (Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home) And in 2379, the Enterprise-E prevented use of thalaron radiation emitted from a biogenic weapon wielded by Praetor Shinzon. Such use could have destroyed all biological life on the planet. (Star Trek: Nemesis)The Borg have also attempted at least twice to assimilate the planet Earth. In 2367 a Borg cube entered Earth orbit, but was stopped by the USS Enterprise-D moments before it began to attack the planet. (TNG: "The Best of Both Worlds, Part II") Attempting to change history and forestall Human interaction with interstellar societies, a second Borg attack in 2373 was barely held off by Starfleet forces, once again in near-Earth space. (Star Trek: First Contact)
- In an alternate timeline, a Borg sphere, escaping from the cube as it was destroyed, went back in time to prevent Humanity's First Contact with Vulcans in 2063. As a result, the Borg had no problem assimilating Earth. The Enterprise-E was the only ship to be aware of the original timeline, being protected by the temporal wake of the Borg sphere. Assimilated Earth had an atmosphere which contained high concentrations of methane, carbon monoxide and fluorine. It had a population of approximately 9 billion drones.
In 2375, the Borg decided to create another strategy, since all direct assaults on Earth failed so far. They planned to detonate a biogenic charge in Earth's atmosphere, infecting all lifeforms with nanoprobe viruses, triggering a gradual assimilation. According to the Borg Queen, half the population would be drones until the effect is realized. (VOY: "Dark Frontier")
- It remains unclear if this plan was finally applied. According to the novelization of "Endgame", the nanoprobe virus was brought to Earth and rapidly infecting the population.
Climate and Geography
From at least the dawn of Humans, Earth has been a Class M world by 23rd century planetary classification standards. Since that time, Earth has had several major landmasses and a wide variety of climatic and surface conditions, ranging from tundra to desert. By the 24th century, Humans had installed a weather modification network to alter the natural weather patterns of Earth, including dissipating destructive weather phenomena such as tornadoes. (TNG: "True Q")
Land features and formations
- El Capitan
- Yosemite National Park
- Pacific Ocean
- Mount Cook
- Mount Everest
- Tibetan plateau
- Mount McKinley
- Ural Mountains
- North Pole
|Continents of Earth|
|Africa • Asia • Antarctica • Australia • Europe • North America • South America|
Human-created points of interest
- The Atlantis project, if completed, would probably also be considered a Human-created point of interest. There is no evidence it was successfully finished, however.
- See Earth animals
- See Human history
- See Voth
|The Sol System|
|Sol • Mercury • Venus • Earth (Luna) • Mars (Deimos) • Asteroid Belt • Jupiter (Io; Ganymede) • Saturn (Mimas; Rhea; Titan) • Uranus • Neptune (Triton) • Pluto|
According to Gene Rodenberry’s novelization of Star Trek: The Motion Picture, there is a dam across the Straits of Gibraltar. This allowed the level of the Mediterranean Sea to be lowered, creating new farm and park land along the coast, and the world's largest hydro-electric project.